Results for effigy:
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: effigy vessel
CATEGORY: artifact; ceramics
DEFINITION: An image or representation, usually depicting people or animals, often made of pottery or stone -- such as a ceramic vessel. Such vessels were typical artifacts of the Mississippian period in North America, c 75-1540 AD.
- effigy mound
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Effigy mound culture
CATEGORY: feature; culture
DEFINITION: A Late Woodland culture in the upper Mississippi valley characterized by low but very long burial mounds, built mainly between c 700-800 AD. The largest effigy mound is located in southern Ohio and is in the form of an uncoiling snake holding an egg-shaped object in its mouth. Most effigy mounds have been found in the shape of birds and others in the shape of animals. Bundled, flexed and cremated burials are common, with certain locations within the life-form mounds being preferred (e.g. the head, heart, and hips). Grave goods, if they occur at all, are very simple. Although it is known that most of the effigy mounds are burial sites, some are not, and their significance remains a mystery. The Effigy Mound culture has been dated from AD 300 to the mid-1600s.
- effigy pipe
- CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Small pipes carved in one piece from stone and polished, representing birds, fish, and other animals, particularly form the Hopewell culture of the Eastern Woodlands of the United States during 300 BC-200 AD. In other areas and periods of the US, larger stone effigy pipes were carved in a variety of zoomorphic and human forms, such as the human effigy pipes of Adena Mound, Ohio.
- CATEGORY: ceramics; culture
DEFINITION: In central Peru, a distinctive type of pottery made by the Chancay people between 1000-1500 AD (from Late Intermediate Period). It is black-on-white with parallel or checkered design, sometimes with biomorphic figures or painted in soft colors. The most common forms were tall, two-handled, egg-shaped collared jars; bowls and beakers with slightly bowed sides; and large figurines. The pottery is associated with large effigy figurines, dolls, and lacelike textiles. Chancay weaving was considered excellent.
- CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In sepulchral sculpture, an effigy representing the person in death; especially, an effigy depicting the deceased in a state of advanced decomposition. It was popular in 15th- and 16th-century northern Europe. The gisant was often placed below a portrait, or orant, effigy, which represented the person praying or kneeling, as in life. It was a reminder of the transitory nature of life.
- Middle Horizon
- CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A division of time in Andean/Peruvian South America, c 600-1000 AD, used to refer to the first imperialistic domination of area under the unifying forces of Tiahuanaco and Huari (Wari) cultures. It was the time of the first large-scale imperial expansions. During the first half of the Middle Horizon, in central Peru, the Huari came to control the highlands and possibly the coast. The remains of large groups of food-storage buildings in the Huari strongholds suggest military activity like that of the late Inca. Huari is closely linked in its art style to the monuments of the great site of Tiahuanaco, located on Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Tiahuanaco expanded over the altiplano and adjacent regions of Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile. The principal buildings of Tiahuanaco include the Akapana Pyramid, a huge platform mound or stepped pyramid of earth faced with cut andesite; a rectangular enclosure known as the Kalasasaya, constructed of alternating tall stone columns and smaller rectangular blocks; and another enclosure known as the Palacio. They practiced the raised-field system of agriculture. Some Tiahuanaco effigy vessels have been discovered at Huari, but otherwise they seem to have been independent entities. In the second half of the Middle Horizon, the political and economic systems slowly collapsed. The decline of these two states was followed by a period of more localized political power. The Late Intermediate Period began about 1000 AD.
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: tuft
DEFINITION: A gradual accumulation of debris upon which a continuously occupied settlement is built, or which is the by-product or remains of some activity. The term can mean (1) a constructed earthwork or fortification, especially one with a geometric or animal form (also called effigy mound), (2) a low, isolated, rounded natural hill, usually of earth, (3) a structure built by fossil colonial organisms, (4) prehistoric refuse heap consisting chiefly of the shells of edible mollusks (also called shell mound), or (5) an artificial construction commonly used for human burial (also called burial mound) or as a foundation for a temple or dwelling.
- Northwest Coast tradition
- CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A series of prehistoric groups of the northern California coast, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska, with origins in the Fraser River delta and clearly established by 1000 BC. Their subsistence was based on hunting and gathering of riverine and marine food sources (mollusks, salmon, halibut, sea mammals). Characteristics in the archaeological record include bone and slate hunting tools, stone effigy carving, and woodworking tools. Totem poles and elaborately carved long houses are still a cultural feature in the area.
- CATEGORY: deity
DEFINITION: The Náhuatl name for the principal Aztec god of Late Postclassic central America, usually depicted as a feathered serpent. He was the god of self-sacrifice, patron of the arts and crafts, and inventor of agriculture and the calendar. In another form he was also the wind god and god of the morning and evening star. The name was also used as the official title of high priest among Aztecs. His cult can be recognized in the Classic period at Teotihuacán, at Tula, Cholula, and at many Mexican sites. He was an important figure in the early Toltec pantheon (becoming identified with a local ruler), and his effigy appears in the Maya territory after the Toltec invasion of Chichén Itzá. According to legend, Quetzalcóatl was driven away from Mexico, but before leaving he gave a promise to return. For a while, the Aztecs believed that the invading Spaniards were the god and his followers returning to fulfill this prophecy -- this belief leading to the downfall of the Aztec empire.
- Serpent Mound
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Great Serpent Mound
DEFINITION: Large ritual earth mound near Locust Grove, Ohio, with the form of a curved serpent holding either an egg or a frog. The mound is associated with a nearby burial mound of the Adena culture. At 405 meters long, 1-2 meters high, it is probably the largest serpent effigy in the world.
- Southeastern ceremonial complex / Southern Cult
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Southeastern tradition
DEFINITION: A complex consisting of a range of specialized artifacts and motifs found in mortuaries and rich burials at some of the principal sites of the Middle Mississippi Culture (Mississippian) in southeastern North America. Beginning c 1200 AD, cult objects include ear-spools, ceremonial axes, and disks made of copper or shell -- all engraved with symbols of military and supernatural power, such as the cross, the sun circle, the swastika, and the eye-and-hand. Characteristic artifacts such as monolithic ceremonial axes, effigy jars, and worked shell objects have been found in abundance at the major ceremonial centers at Etowah, Georgia; Spiro, Oklahoma; and Moundville, Alabama. The cult's climax occurred between 1200-1400, but had virtually disappeared by the time of the first European explorers.
- Woodland period
- SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Woodland tradition
DEFINITION: Stage in eastern North America c 1000 BC-800 AD that is a period in Native American history and culture. It is characterized by hunter-gatherers, elaborate burial mounds, beginning of substantial agriculture (corn, beans, squash), and pottery decorated with cord or fabric impressions. It is a term restricted to the cultures of the Eastern Woodlands (south and east of Maritime Provinces of Canada to Minnesota and south to Louisiana and Texas) and important sites are Adena, Hopewell, and Effigy Mound. From c 700 AD, the southern part of the Woodland territory shows strong influence from the Mississippian culture, but elsewhere the Woodland tradition continued until the historic period.
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