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effigy
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: effigy vessel
CATEGORY: artifact; ceramics
DEFINITION: An image or representation, usually depicting people or animals, often made of pottery or stone -- such as a ceramic vessel. Such vessels were typical artifacts of the Mississippian period in North America, c 75-1540 AD.
effigy mound
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Effigy mound culture
CATEGORY: feature; culture
DEFINITION: A Late Woodland culture in the upper Mississippi valley characterized by low but very long burial mounds, built mainly between c 700-800 AD. The largest effigy mound is located in southern Ohio and is in the form of an uncoiling snake holding an egg-shaped object in its mouth. Most effigy mounds have been found in the shape of birds and others in the shape of animals. Bundled, flexed and cremated burials are common, with certain locations within the life-form mounds being preferred (e.g. the head, heart, and hips). Grave goods, if they occur at all, are very simple. Although it is known that most of the effigy mounds are burial sites, some are not, and their significance remains a mystery. The Effigy Mound culture has been dated from AD 300 to the mid-1600s.
effigy pipe
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Small pipes carved in one piece from stone and polished, representing birds, fish, and other animals, particularly form the Hopewell culture of the Eastern Woodlands of the United States during 300 BC-200 AD. In other areas and periods of the US, larger stone effigy pipes were carved in a variety of zoomorphic and human forms, such as the human effigy pipes of Adena Mound, Ohio.

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