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A Group
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: A Horizon, A-Group
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A term created by American archaeologist George Reisner to refer to a semi-nomadic Nubian Neolithic culture of the mid-fourth to early third millennium BC. The term has evolved into a horizon" because there was also a C Group and the term was misleading that there were two separate ethnic groups rather than two phases of Nubian material culture. Traces of the A group which may have evolved from the Abkan culture survive throughout Lower Nubia. An important site is Afyeh near Aswan Sayala and Qustul. There is evidence among the grave goods that the A Group was engaged in regular trade with the Egyptians of the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods. The A Group was eventually replaced by the C Group during the Old Kingdom. The existence of a B Group has now been rejected."
B Group
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: B Horizon
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A term no longer used to describe the final stages of the Neolithic A Group in Nubia (c 2800-2300 BC), prior to the beginning of the C Group phase. In soils, the B horizon lies immediately beneath the A horizon and may reach a depth of 65 to 90 centimeters (26 to 35 inches). It is a zone of more moderate weathering in which there is an accumulation of many of the products removed from the A horizon.
C Group
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: C Horizon, C-group
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A culture of Nubia between the Old and New Kingdoms (c 2494-1550 BC). The indigenous C Group people were subjected to varying degrees of social and economic influence from their powerful northern neighbors.
Early Horizon
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A period during which the Chavin culture flourished in the central Andes of South America and was integrated into the northern highlands and coastal region of Peru, c 900-1 BC (also said to be c 1200-300 BC). It is one of a seven-period chronological construction used in Peruvian archaeology. It coincides with the duration of the Chavin style and its derivatives, such as Cupisnique. Following this, there was regional differentiation culminating in the complex cultures of the Early Intermediate Period.
eluvial horizon
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A soil horizon from which minerals, humus, or plant nutrients have been lost. It has lost the material in solution or suspension by pedogenesic processes. The most common eluvial horizon is E.
gley horizon
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: gleying
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A soil horizon characterized by blue, gray, or olive coloring due to excessive moisture in anaerobic conditions; a waterlogging of soil. Gleying may result from a raised water table or from impeded drainage within the soil profile; the latter condition occurs in some podzols. Gley horizons and gley soils are conducive to preservation of organic remains.
gleying
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: gley horizon
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: The process of waterlogging of soil in which iron is bacterially reduced under anaerobic conditions. Gleying may result from a raised water table or from impeded drainage within the soil profile -- especially in bogs, fens, floodplains, lakes, and swamps. The soil is blue, gray, or olive in coloring and forms gley horizons.
horizon
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: horizon style
CATEGORY: term; artifact
DEFINITION: Any artifact, art style, or other cultural trait that has extensive geographical distribution but a limited time span. The term, in anthropology, refers to the spread of certain levels of cultural development and, in geology, the layers of natural features in a region; in soil science a horizon is a layer formed in a soil profile by soil-forming processes. The main meaning, however, refers to a phase, characterized by a particular artifact or artistic style that is introduced to a wide area and which may cross cultural boundaries. Provided that these 'horizon markers' were diffused rapidly and remained in use for only a short time, the local regional cultures in which they occur will be roughly contemporary. The term is less commonly used now that chronometric dating techniques allow accurate local chronologies to be built. Examples of art styles which fulfill these conditions is called a 'horizon style' -- such as Tiahuanaco or Chavín.
horizontal control
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Any technique used to locate and record artifacts, ecofacts, and features in horizontal space.
horizontal exposure
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: horizontal (area) excavation
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The excavation of a site to reveal its horizontal extent. Such an excavation is designed to uncover large areas of a site, especially settlement layouts.
horizontal feature interface
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The area associated with upstanding units of stratification and marking the interfacial levels to which the units have been dug.
horizontal layer interface
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The surface of a natural or manmade layer, a unit of stratification. It takes the layer number of the deposit with which it is associated.
horizontal loom
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A structure on which woven cloth is manufactured, comprising a frame set horizontally across vertical supports. The warp threads were tied across the frame from front to back so that they could be wound out as weaving proceeded. The warp was usually arranged so that alternate threads could be raised and lowered, thus allowing the weaver to pass a shuttle containing the weft thread from side to side across the warp. The horizontal loom was developed later than the UPRIGHT LOOM and provided the basis for the development of mechanical looms during later medieval and post-medieval times.
horizontal stratigraphy
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Chronological sequences based on successive horizontal displacements, such as sequential beach terraces. Stratigraphy is by definition obtained from superposed deposits, but other circumstances can be treated in the same way. For example, the oldest burials are likely to be those nearest the settlement, the top of a hill, or some other favored position. The later ones will be progressively further out as the cemetery expands. The concept can be a helpful tool in the interpretation of a site.
horizontal transverse flaking
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A unique flaking style where horizontal parallel flakes are removed that extend from one edge of the blade, across to the other edge.
illuvial horizon
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A soil horizon resulting from the deposition of minerals, humus, or plant nutrients, washed down from higher up in the profile. The most common illuvial horizon is the B horizon. Its opposite is eluvial horizon.
Late Horizon
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Upper Formative; Inca Period
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A division of time in central Andean chronology, 1450-1533 AD, which corresponds to the Inca Empire's expansion from Cuzco. It is the most recent and briefest period of a chronological construction of Peruvian archaeology. The early date marks the point at which territorial expansion was virtually complete; the late date marks the passing of control to the Spanish under Pizarro. Archaeologists have come to distinguish the various peoples and civilizations by descriptive terms -- the Late Preceramic, the Initial (or Lower Formative) Period, the Early Horizon, the Early Intermediate Period, the Middle Horizon, the Late Intermediate Period, and the Late Horizon.
law of original horizontality
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: principle of original horizontality
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: The principle that all sedimentary layers formed in bodies of water were originally deposited horizontally as a result of gravity and other physical phenomena.
Middle Horizon
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A division of time in Andean/Peruvian South America, c 600-1000 AD, used to refer to the first imperialistic domination of area under the unifying forces of Tiahuanaco and Huari (Wari) cultures. It was the time of the first large-scale imperial expansions. During the first half of the Middle Horizon, in central Peru, the Huari came to control the highlands and possibly the coast. The remains of large groups of food-storage buildings in the Huari strongholds suggest military activity like that of the late Inca. Huari is closely linked in its art style to the monuments of the great site of Tiahuanaco, located on Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Tiahuanaco expanded over the altiplano and adjacent regions of Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile. The principal buildings of Tiahuanaco include the Akapana Pyramid, a huge platform mound or stepped pyramid of earth faced with cut andesite; a rectangular enclosure known as the Kalasasaya, constructed of alternating tall stone columns and smaller rectangular blocks; and another enclosure known as the Palacio. They practiced the raised-field system of agriculture. Some Tiahuanaco effigy vessels have been discovered at Huari, but otherwise they seem to have been independent entities. In the second half of the Middle Horizon, the political and economic systems slowly collapsed. The decline of these two states was followed by a period of more localized political power. The Late Intermediate Period began about 1000 AD.
Ornament Horizon
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A brief period in the Middle Bronze Age of southwest Britain marked by the occurrence, in hoards, of tools and bronze ornaments which owe their inspiration to types current in north Germany and Scandinavia from c 1400 BC. These 'foreign' objects include torcs, coiled finger rings, ribbed bracelets, knobbed sickles, and square-mouthed socketed axes. In Devon, Somerset, and Sussex, hoards of the Ornament Horizon also contain native spearheads, palstaves, and quoit-headed pins. This influx seems to have given a boost to the native bronze industry.
recurrence surface
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: recurrence horizon
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A division in peat stratigraphy which separates well-humidified peat from unhumidified peat. Recurrence surfaces are found in raised bogs and blanket bogs which are nourished only by rainfall. It has therefore been suggested that recurrence surfaces are due to a change to damper climate. Recurrence surfaces of many dates have been found, often several in one bog, although not so many fitting into one age range. During the late prehistoric and early historic phases of the past 6,000 years, the peat bogs of northern Europe appear to have undergone a number of desiccations (warm, dry summers), revealed in the bog cores as dry, often wooded, surfaces. The dry phases were generally followed by wet conditions in which peat accumulation was rapid. These overlying layers of renewed peat growth are also known as recurrence horizons"."
soil horizon
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A layer in a soil developed through the natural weathering of geological and archaeological surfaces. It differs from related layers chemically, physically, or biologically. Sequences of related soil horizons make up the soil profile.
time-marker or time marker
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: horizon marker, temporal marker
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A temporally significant class of artifacts defined by a consistent clustering of attributes.

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