SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: AAA CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A professional organization for anthropologists with a special division for archaeologists. The association publishes American Anthropologist and Anthropology Newsletter. The Archaeology Division publishes the monograph series Archaeological Papers of the AAA.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: associated CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: The co-occurrence of two or more objects sharing the same general location and stratigraphic level and that are thought to have been deposited at approximately the same time (being in or on the same matrix). Objects are said to be in association with each other when they are found together in a context which suggests simultaneous deposition. Associations between objects are the basis for relative dating or chronology and the concept of cross-dating as well as in interpretation -- cultural connections, original function, etc. Pottery and flint tools associated in a closed context would be grounds for linking them into an assemblage, possibly making the full material culture of a group available. The association of undated objects with artifacts of known date allows the one to be dated by the other. When two or more objects are found together and it can be proved that they were deposited together, they are said to be in genuine or closed association. Examples of closed associations are those within a single interment grave, the material within a destruction level, or a hoard. An open association is one in which this can only be assumed, not proved. Artifacts may be found next to each other and still not be associated; one of the artifacts may be intrusive.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The relationship of two or more objects that are found together and that can be proved to have been deposited together.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A relative age determination technique based on archaeological associations with remains of extinct species.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: An assumed relationship between two or more artifacts that are found together, when it cannot be proved that they were deposited together.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: chronometric dating; absolute dates; absolute chronology; absolute age determination (antonym: relative dating) CATEGORY: chronology; technique DEFINITION: The determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system or in years before present (B.P., BP), based on measurable physical and chemical qualities or historical associations such as coins and written records. The date on a coin is an absolute date, as are AD 1492 or 501 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Archaic, Archaic period, Archaic tradition CATEGORY: chronology; culture DEFINITION: A term used to describe an early stage in the development of civilization. In New World chronology, the period just before the shift from hunting, gathering, and fishing to agricultural cultivation, pottery development, and village settlement. Initially, the term was used to designate a non-ceramic-using, nonagricultural, and nonsedentary way of life. Archaeologists now realize, however, that ceramics, agriculture, and sedentism are all found, in specific settings, within contexts that are clearly Archaic but that these activities are subsidiary to the collection of wild foods. In Old World chronology, the term is applied to certain early periods in the history of some civilizations. In Greece, it describes the rise of civilization from c 750 BC to the Persian invasion in 480 BC. In Egypt, it covers the first two dynasties, c 3200-2800 BC. In Classical archaeology, the term is often used to refer to the period of the 8th-6th centuries BC. The term was coined for certain cultures of the eastern North America woodlands dating from c 8000-1000 BC, but usage has been extended to various unrelated cultures which show a similar level of development but at widely different times. For example, it describes a group of cultures in the Eastern US and Canada which developed from the original migration of man from Asia during the Pleistocene, between 40,000-20,000 BC, whose economy was based on hunting and fishing, shell and plant gathering. Between 8000-1000 BC, a series of technical achievements characterized the tradition, which can be broken into periods: Early Archaic 8000-5000 BC, mixture of Big Game Hunting tradition with early Archaic cultures, also marked by post-glacial climatic change in association with the disappearance of Late Pleistocene big game animals; then Middle Archaic tradition cultures from 5000-2000 BC, and a Late Archaic period 2000-1000 BC. In the New World, the lifestyle lacked horticulture, domesticated animals, and permanent villages.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An important Neolithicsite in Thessaly, northern Greece, which has given much information on the early phases of the Greek Aceramic Neolithic period. In the Argissa Magula near Larissa, there have been early prepottery Neolithic finds of probably the 6th millennium BC. Timber-framed huts consisted of shallow mud-walled pits that were likely roofed with branches. Obsidian was already being traded and flint tools were made. The earliest known domesticated cattle date from about 6000 BC at Argissa (and Nea Nikomedeia) in Greece, in association with cultivated einkorn, emmerwheat, and barley, millet, lentils. Sheep, goats, and pigs were also cultivate and kept. This site (along with Knossos) is also responsible for the earliest evidence of agriculture, soon after 7000 BC. The site was occupied throughout the Neolithic and well into the Bronze Age.
CATEGORY: artifact; term DEFINITION: A group of objects of different or similar types found in closeassociation with each other and thus considered to be the product of one people from one period of time. Where the assemblage is frequently repeated and covers a reasonably full range of human activity, it is described as a culture; where it is repeated but limited in content, e.g. flint tools only (a set of objects in one medium), it is called an industry. When a group of industries are found together in a single archaeologicalcontext, it is called an assemblage. Such a group characterizes a certain culture, era, site, or phase and it is the sum of all subassemblages. Assemblage examples are artifacts from a site or feature.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: Any style with only vague associations with social identity, such as a tendency to wear certain types of clothing or jewelry.
CATEGORY: typology DEFINITION: Any grouping method based on associations between attributes and including Spaulding's configurationist typology and factor analysis.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in Cordoba, northwestern Argentina, which has evidence of a transition from Big Game Hunting to a more specialized hunting and gathering economy. The assemblage contains crude, large bifacial willow-leaf projectile points, lithic hunting tools, and tool-making debris in association with manos and milling stones, dating between 8,000-12,000 years ago.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave in southern New Mexico's Carlsbad Caverns National Park, notable for its evidence of prehistoric plant cultivation. The site of Bat Cave has produced specimens of a type of primitive corn that is also known from the Flacco phase in Tamaulipas at 2000 BC but that is here in association with a Chiricahuaassemblage from which Cochise materials (maize and squash) have been dated at about 1000 BC. Evidence of beans (dated to 1000-400 BC) was found in association with San Pedro materials. Early levels indicate the use of primitive pod corn (dated c 3500 BC), but a cultivated form of maize was in use by 2500 BC, the earliest date for cultigens in the American Southwest. During the summer a colony of several million bats inhabits the cave.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: black and red ware CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Any Indian pottery with black rims and interior and red on the outside, due to firing in the inverted position, which was made beginning in the Iron Age. Characteristic forms include shallow dishes and deeper bowls. It first appeared on late sites of the Indus civilization and was a standard feature of the Banasculture. This ware has been found throughout much of the Indian peninsula with dates of the later 2nd and early 1st millennium BC. In the first millennium it became widespread in association with iron and megalithic monuments. In the Ganges Valley it post-dates ochre-colored pottery and generally precedes painted gray ware.
Boucher (de Crèvecoeur) de Perthes, Jacques (1788-1868)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Boucher de Perthes CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: French archaeologist and writer who was the first to develop the idea that prehistory could be measured on the basis of periods of geological time. In 1837, in the Somme Valley, he discovered flint hand axes and other stone tools along with the bones of extinct mammals in deposits of the Pleistocene Epoch (or Ice Age, ending about 10,000 years ago). Boucher de Perthes was the first to draw attention to the Stone Age's revolutionary significance, because at the time, 4004 BC was still believed to be the year of the creation. His claims that these objects were the tools of ancient man and that they occurred in association with the bones of extinct animals were ridiculed. In 1859, Boucher de Perthes's conclusions were finally upheld by a group of eminent British scientists, including Charles Lyell, Hugh Falconer, John Preswich, and John Evans, who visited the excavated sites. His archaeological writings include De la Création: essai sur l'origine et la progression des êtres" (1838-41) and "Antiquités Celtiques et Antédiluviennes" (1847-64)."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Neolithicsite in the Vale of Kashmir with phases of occupation dating from c 3050 BC to the 3rd-4th centuries AD. Deep pit dwellings are associated with ground stone axes, bone tools, and coarse gray burnished pottery. These characteristics plus the absence of blades, use of pierced rectangular knives, and association of dog skeletons with human burials, all seem to point to connections with central and northern Asia, as Mongolia, rather than with the rest of the Indian subcontinent. Hunting seems to have been the main basis of the economy. Phase II has houses of mud and mudbrick and Phase III has a group of large stones arranged in a rough semicircle.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kampuchea CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Neolithic peoples inhabited present-day Cambodia during the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. Stone tools have been found in terraces of the Mekong River in possible association with tektites from a shower that fell c 600,000 to 700,000 years ago. In western Cambodia there is an important Hoabinhiansequence from the cave of Laang Spean dating to 4300 BC. A major Neolithicmoundsite at Somrong Sen yielded elaborate assemblage which seems to predate 100 BC. Khmercivilization developed over several distinct periods, starting with the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of Funan and Chenla in the 1st century AD, which extended into the 8th century.
Carter, Howard (1874-1939)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: British archaeologist who made one of the richest and most celebrated contributions to Egyptology: the discovery in 1922 of the largely intact tomb of King Tutankhamen. At 17, Carter joined a British-sponsored archaeological survey of Egypt. He received his training as an excavator and epigrapher from some of the most important Egyptologists of the late nineteenth century, including Gaston Maspero and Flinders Petrie, with whom he worked at el-Amarna in 1892. He made drawings of the sculptures and inscriptions at the temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Thebes and then served as inspector-general of the Egyptian antiquities department. While supervising excavations in the Valley of the Kings in 1902, he discovered the tombs of Hatshepsut and Thutmose IV. Around 1907 he began his association with the 5th Earl of Carnarvon, a collector of antiquities who asked Carter to supervise excavations in the valley. On November 4, 1922, Carter found the first sign of Tutankhamen's tomb, and three days later he reached its sealed entrance. For the next 10 years Carter supervised the removal of its contents, most of which now in the Cairo Museum. His patient and long unrewarded study of the Valley of the Kings brought to light the only unrobbed Egyptian pharaoh's tomb and the richest treasure ever to be discovered.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in Kenya, dated to 1.4 mya, which has produced very early evidence of fire in association with tools. If it was man-made, as opposed to natural cause such as lightning, then there is the question as to which hominid was responsible: Homo erectus or Austrlopithecus robustus.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A statistical test that is used to measure the significant differences between sets of observed values and those which would be expected and determine whether the deviation from what was expected is more than random chance would suggest. It can be used for many different archaeological observations, such as examining the existence of an association between settlementdistribution and distinct ecological zones in a region, or between different fabrics and decorative styles in pottery production. From the data, the number expected in each zone on a random distribution can be calculated by proportion, and the deviation between expectation and observation measured. It is then possible to assess whether the observed data could have arisen by chance, or whether some other factor is affecting it. Karl Pearson developed the test.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Paleo-Indian culture located on the plateau of Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas and beginning sometime prior to 10,000 BC. It is so named from its first important site near Clovis, NM. The culture is generally considered to be ancestral to the later Folsomcomplex and it, like Folsom, was part of the big-game hunting tradition. It is characterized by distinctive, fluted, lanceolatestone projectile points, believed to be the oldest of their type. In Arizona, Clovis projectile points have been found in association with mammoth bones. The most problematical Clovisfind comes from a site in Texas where a Clovispoint was found in hearths with a radiocarbon date of 37,000+ years. The typesite for this complex is Blackwater Draw and its artifacts are of the Llanocomplex.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Clovis spear point CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A distinctive, fluted, lanceolate (leaf-shaped) stone projectile point characteristic of the early Paleo-Indian period, c 10,000-9000 BC, and often found in association with mammoth bones. It is named for Clovis, New Mexico, where it was first found. The concave-based projectile point has a longitudinal groove on each face running from the base to a point not more than halfway along the tool. The base of a Clovis point is concave and the edge of the base usually blunted through grinding, probably to ensure that the thongs, attaching the point to the projectile, were not cut. It is assumed to have been a spear because of its size; the length of points varies from 2-4 in. (7-12 cm), and their widest width is 1-1 1/2 in (3-4 cm). Clovis points and the artifacts associated with them (grouped together as the Llanocomplex) are among the earliest tools known from the New World and have been found over most of North America, with a few outliers as far south as Mexico and Panama. It is the earliest projectile point of the Big Game Hunting tradition of North America. From these points came the later, more sophisticated points, such as the Folsom.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A region in Panama where the type site of Sitio Conte has yielded deep rectangular tombs with grave goods of a rich ceramic and metallurgical tradition of c 500-1000 AD. The Coclé region was strongly influenced by the Quimbayastyle. It is particularly known for its striking gold pieces set with precious stones, including emeralds, quartzes, jaspers, opals, agates, and green serpentines. The extremely fine polychrome pottery is characterized by decoration of intricate geometric patterns and by stylized biomorphic forms. Gold- and tumbaga-working techniques, probably imported from Columbia, include cire perdue casting. Some association with Tairona is recognized in some artifacts especially in the wing-shaped pendants. In addition to the grave goods, there are indications that wife and servant sacrifice took place at the death of an important person.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: collagen dating CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Collagen is a protein abundant in living bone, which contains about 4% nitrogen. Collagen survives long after death and the collagen content of a bone, measured by the amount of nitrogen present, yields information as to its relative date. The rate of decay is varies with temperature and other aspects of the environment, but collagen dating can only give relative dates for different bone samples from a particular site. The test is used mainly in association with the fluorine test and radiometric assay, as in the cases of Piltdown and Swanscombe Man.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: archaeological context CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: The time and space setting of an artifact, feature, or culture. The context of a find is its position on a site, its relationship through association with other artifacts, and its chronological position as revealed through stratigraphy. Certain features or artifacts may be normally associated with particular contexts, for example a potterytype may be found in the context of certain burials. If such an artifact is found out of context, it may suggest the previous presence of a burial, the robbery of a burial, or a place of manufacture of the pots that accompanied burials. An artifact's context usually consists of its immediate matrix (the material surrounding it e.g. gravel, clay, or sand), its provenience (horizontal and vertical position within the matrix), and its association with other artifacts (occurrence together with other archeological remains, usually in the same matrix). The assessment of context includes study of what has happened to the find since it was buried in the ground.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: coversand, blow sand CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A deposit or sediment of wind-blown sand which is formed by the carrying of sand grains from glacial outwash deposits or from the shore by wind gusts. In areas where this occurs, the deposits may wipe out evidence of previous occupation -- but they may also preserve artifact associations if the deposition is thick and rapid. If it happens slowly, the archaeologicalmaterial may eventually end up several kilometers from its source.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Great Basin Transverse point CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A crescent-shaped bifacially flaked stone tool generally restricted to the Paleo-Indian period and almost always found in association with extinct Pleistocene lakes. They were possibly used for hunting large shorebirds.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cross dating CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A correlationdating technique that can yield a relative or absolute age or chronology. The basis of cross-dating is the occurrence of finds in association. The assumption is that a particular type of artifact, for example a type of sword, when found in an undated context will bear a similar date to one found in a dated context, thus enabling the whole of the undated context to be given a chronological value. The method is based on the assumption that typologies evolved at the same rate and in the same way over a wide area or alternatively on assumptions of diffusion. Many of the chronologies constructed before the advent of chronometric dating techniques were based on cross-dating. New techniques such as radiocarbon dating showed some of the links established by cross-dating to be invalid, so the method has become somewhat discredited. However, its use is still helpful where recognizable products of dateable manufacture are found in undated contexts with no possibility of using a chronometric dating technique. So in the absence of geochronology, two cultural groups can only be proved contemporary by the discovery of links between them. If in culture A an object produced by culture B is found, A must be contemporary with, or later than, B. The term cross-dating ought strictly to be used only when an object of culture A is also found in proved association with culture B, when overlap of at least part of the time span of each is proved. Items having an established date, such as dated coins or buildings, or ceramics of known manufacture are most often used. By itself, a cross-dated chronology does not give absolute dates, but it may be calibrated by reference to other dating methods. A type of cross-dating has always been used in geology and stratigraphical sequences are often correlated by the assemblages of fossils they contain; this is known as biostratigraphy. The archaeological versions of cross-dating may have been developed directly out of the geological method and may have been based on a false analogy between biological fossils and archaeological artifacts.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A type of bronze dress fastener characterized by a simple shaft with a short cross-piece set in the form of a T. Some examples have decoration on the upper part of the shank and head. Dating to the 15th century BC they are found in southern Britain in association with Wessex Culture II graves and on the continent in Rienecke A2 contexts.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Archaeological data found in association and in primary context and used to define areas and kinds of ancient activity. Such information may be divided into composite, differentiated, and simple data clusters.
deep sea cores
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: deep sea core dating, deep-sea cores CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A technique used in the analysis of data from oceanic sediments in which the material retrieved by the core yields information on temperature changes in the ocean through time. These changes, suggestive of climatic variation, help to chart the progress of glaciation and, since they can be dated, the technique assists in the establishment of a chronology for the Quaternary. The cores, some 5 cm. in diameter and up to 25 m. deep, are extracted from the ocean floor. The sediments they contain have a high percentage of calcium carbonate content made up of the shells of small marine organisms and these sediments build up very slowly, from 10-50 mm per 1000 years, but their sequence is uninterrupted. Since these organisms have different temperature preferences depending on species, the relative abundance of the various species changes as the temperature alters. Variations in the ratio of two oxygen isotopes in the calcium carbonate of these shells give a sensitive indicator of sea temperature at the time the organisms were alive. Through the identification of the species, and by the use of oxygen isotope analysis, a picture can be built up of variations in temperature over the millennia. Since various forms of dating (radiocarbon dating, ionium dating, uranium seriesdating, palaeomagnetism, protactinium/ionium dating) can be used on the carbonate in the shells, absolute dates can be given to the different levels in the core. Thus dates emerge for glaciations and interglacial periods, which can assist in the age determination of archaeologicalmaterial found in association with these glacial phases. Problems with the technique are the difficulty of correlating oceanic temperature changes with continental glacial and interglacial phases, and the disturbance by animals living on the ocean bottom. The piston corer was developed in 1947.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A small island in the Aegean, in the middle of the Cyclades, the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. There was an important sanctuary which contained a colossal marblekouros and a sanctuary of Artemis with a temple. There are four main groups of ruins on the western coast: the commercial port and small sanctuaries; the religious city of Apollo, a hieron (sanctuary); the sanctuaries of Mount Cynthos and the theater; and the region of the Sacred Lake. There is evidence for some late Neolithic and some Mycenaean settlement; it was inhabited from the late 3rd millennium BC. Sometime early in the 1st millennium BC, its association with the worship of Apollo was established. The island became a populous religious and political center, with an oracle that was perhaps second only to Delphi. Delos was also chose as the headquarters and treasury for the important maritime alliance against the Persians, the Delian League (487 BC). Tine streets, Greek and oriental temples, meeting houses for the merchant guilds, a unique colonnaded ('hypostyle') hall, and splendid houses were built. Rome took the island in 166 BC, and eventually it was abandoned. Excavations have been conducted since 1873 by the French School of Athens.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: distributional archaeology; distribution patterns CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: Simply, the spatial location of archaeological sites or artifacts. More specifically, a definition of the spatial location of artifacts, structures, or settlement types over a landscape. Analysis of the distribution of a particular artifacttype may lead to conclusions about the nature of the industry or culture which produced or used it. The distribution of objects is studied by the plotting of an artifact's find-places on a distribution map. This is the visual representation of the distribution of some archaeologically significant trait or traits. The relationship of the find-spot symbols to the natural environment may reveal something about communication networks, economic subsystem, cultural or technological entities. The distribution map should show the extent of a culture of which the traits are distinctive, outlying occurrences being explained by diffusion, especially if spread along natural routes. The origin of more localized traits may be defined. The overlaying of one trait on another may suggest association or sequence, while mutually exclusive distributions can imply contemporaneity. The emphasis is on individual parts of archaeological deposits rather than on the site as a unit.
CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: A common feature of archaeological sites in association with defensive structures, as a means of drainage, or as a construction trench. A ditch was usually dug outside the walls of forts, fortresses and so on, as part of the defenses, and was often filled with water. Ditches which are allowed to erode, without much interference, go through three phases of infilling. Primary fill accumulates as the sides of the ditch collapse. Vegetation then begins at the bottom of the ditch and the secondary fill starts to build up. This material has a much finer texture than primary fill. The rate of secondary fill deposition is related to soilerosion in the surrounding area. If the land by the ditch is plowed, thick colluvial deposits, called tertiary fill, may bury the secondary fill.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The systematic and scientific recovery of cultural, material remains of people as a means of obtaining data about past human activity. Excavation is digging or related types of salvage work, scientifically controlled so as to yield the maximum amount of data. It is the main tool of the archaeologist. The excavation of a site, however, involves the destruction of the primary evidence, which can never be recovered. Excavation should therefore never be undertaken lightly or without an understanding of the obligations of the excavator to the evidence he destroys. The first decision is whether to excavate a site at all, a question of particular interest when sites are being rapidly destroyed by farming methods and road and town building. The nature and scale of the undertaking is the next decision. If time and/or money is short, sampling of the site may be all that is possible. If a large-scale excavation is to be undertaken, the approach will be either area (open) excavation, grid method, quadrant method, rabotage, sondage, etc. Removal of the topsoil will either be carried out by hand or machine. After an initial plan has been made of all visible features before excavation, digging proceeds according to the dictates of the site: sections may be taken across areas of feature intersection, or across individual features. A permanent record of the whole process should be kept: plans, drawings, notes, photographs. Excavation is only the first part of the process. For years, excavation was regarded as merely a method of collecting artifacts. Pitt Rivers in Britain and Petrie in the Near East first placed emphasis on evidence rather than artifacts, not what is found but where it was found relative to the layers of deposit (stratigraphy) and to other objects (association) -- the context. The excavator can only justify his destruction if it is done with meticulous care so that every artifact, be it an ax or a posthole, is discovered and if possible preserved; if it is recorded accurately enough for all information to remain available after the site has disappeared; and if this record is quickly made available by publication. In short, excavation is the digging of archaeological sites, removal of the matrix, and observance of the provenience and context of the finds therein, and the recording of them in a three-dimensional way.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A multivariate mathematical technique which assesses the degree of variation between artifact types, and is based on a matrix of correlation coefficients which measure the relative association between any two variables. This statistical technique calculates the relative importance of a set of factors that together are assumed to influence some observed set of values or properties.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The study of plant remains from an archaeological site, including identification, association with artifacts and food processing, etc.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Folsom projectile point CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A distinctive Palaeoindian fluted projectile point with a single flute on each face and fine pressure flaking. Found in association in sites around Folsom, New Mexico, from c 9000-8000 BC (alternately 11,000-10,200 BP), they differ from Clovis points in the length of the flute, which extends over most of the point's side. Folsom points are smaller, with their widest dimension near the middle rather than towards the base; more concavebase than Clovis, and edges of Folsom points were retouched.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A French cave site in the Charente region, dated to the Riss glaciation. It has fragments of a human skull in association with chopping tools of Tayacian or Clactonian character dating from the Riss or Riss-Würm Interglacial period. The Fontéchevade skull has been classified as pre- or early Neanderthal. The upper levels are Middle and Upper Palaeolithicmaterial.
Frere, John (1740-1807)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: A British antiquary who first recognized the antiquity of Palaeolithicflint artifacts. His flint weapon finds in the Hoxnebrick-earthpit in Suffolk in association with bones of extinct mammals in an undisturbed deep stratum was reported in 1797. Frere recognized that the implements were man-made, 'fabricated and used by a people who had not the use of metals', and suggested that they should be referred to 'a very remote period indeed; even beyond that of the present world'. His ideas were in advance of his time, and his conclusions were ignored largely because they contradicted the accepted Creation date of 4004 BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Hoards of copper objects found in the Ganges basin in India. The main types of objects are flat and shouldered axes, bar chisels, barbed harpoons, antenna-hilted swords, hooked spears, and anthropomorphic objects. Associations with ochre-colored pottery suggest a date of the 2nd millennium BC.
CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: Ancient Egyptian cow goddess, represented in either human or animal form, who was the goddess of the sky, women, fertility, and love. Her associations and cult centers were among the most numerous and diverse of any of the Egyptian deities. Hathor's worship originated in predynastic times (4th millennium BC).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Heqat CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: An Egyptian goddess represented in the form of a frog, standing for rebirth and new life. Heket's strongest association was with childbirth, particularly the final stages of labor.
Hesi, Tell el-
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A tellsite in southern Palestine occupied from the Early Bronze Age, c 2600 BC, to the Hellenistic period/Iron Age. Its excavation by Sir Flinders Petrie and F.J. Bliss were the first stratigraphic excavations in the area, and lent much information on potterytypology and successive building levels. Their work began the establishment of an absolute chronology for Palestinian prehistory, through the discovery of imported, datable Egyptian objects in association with local material.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Any collection of objects buried at one time; a deliberate deposit of complete and / or broken objects buried in the ground for subsequent recovery or as a symbolic act. A hoard often included valuables or prized possessions. Many hoards represent the personal property of individuals, buried for safety at a time of threat. Hoards are a useful source of evidence for archaeologists, because they provide considerable quantities of material and, except in the case of some votive hoards, that material represents a true association. Various classes are distinguished according to their method of accumulation. A personal hoard consists of an individual's personal property buried for safety and not recovered. A merchant's hoard will contain new objects ready for sale. A founder's hoard by contrast will contain obsolete, worn out, or miscast objects, and frequently cake metal as well, all of it awaiting melting down and recasting. A votive hoard is rather different in that the objects were deposited, possibly over a long period of time, in temples or caves, buried, or thrown into water as religious offerings, with no intention of recovery. A hoard of loot is self-explanatory. Bronze Age hoards provide much of the evidence for the period.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: The Dutch name (literally 'Hun's grave') for a local variety of megalithic chamber tombs in the northern Netherlands and northern Germany. The tombs are built of large stones and consist of a round or oval mound surrounded by a kerb and covering a rectangular burial chamber with its entrance on one of the long sides. A few examples have an entrance passage, giving them a T plan which suggests an association with the passage graves of Denmark. The Danish tombs are slightly later than the oldest Dutch ones, but in both places they were built by the TRB culture during the Neolithic in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: index fossil concept; index species CATEGORY: artifact; technique DEFINITION: A fossil with widespread geographical range but which is restricted in time to a brief existence. In archaeology, it is a theory that proposes that strata containing similar fossil assemblages will tend to be of similar age. This concept enables archaeologists to characterize and date strata within archaeological sites using diagnosticartifact forms, making an animal species the basis for dating by faunal association. Artifacts that share the attributes of index fossils are useful in the cross-dating and correlation of deposits that contain them and in the construction of chronologies.
indirect age determination
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: indirect dating CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The determination of the age of archaeological data by association with a matrix or an object of known age. When object A is found clearly associated with object B, whose date is known, the date of B is given to A.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Argentinian site with long occupation and clear chronological continuity and similar to the Desert Tradition. Its lowest level, dated to c 6000 BC, contains willow-leaf points and other hunting tools in association with manos, milling stones, and ground-stone ornaments. Other levels contain medium-sized triangular points, bone projectile points, and a ceramiclevel (c 750 AD).
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in northern Morocco where Levalloiso-Mousterian artifacts were recovered in association with fossil human remains of Neanderthal type. ESR dates range from over 80,000-150,000 BP.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site of long occupation in west-central Illinois, known as one of the first multidisciplinary endeavors of new archaeology; the findings serve as a benchmark for defining the Archaic period in the Midwest. The site is unusual for its long stratigraphic sequence of Archaic and Woodland settlements, dating from c 8700 bp to 1000 AD. Hunter-gathers and, later, farmers, settled at this location on the Illinois River to exploit the fertile river bottom. The site served variously as a workshop for stone tools, a deer-butchering camp, and possibly as the site for one of the earliest villages in North America. Stoneground adzes, manos and metates are dated c 6400 BC. In later levels, there is evidence of increased hunting efficiency (the replacement of the atlatl by the bow and arrow) and of agriculture (squash and pumpkin), and possibly Mississippianassociation. The site also contributed to the methodology of excavation, including approaches to deeply buried sites, and the use of flotation as a technique.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mesolithicculture, named after Larne, Ireland, and found only on sites close to coasts and estuaries in western Scotland and eastern Ireland. It is characterized by shell middens and the early toolkits include leaf-shaped points made on a flake, the oldest unambiguous implement in Ireland, and scrapers. Some are dated to 6000 BC. Later assemblages contain more flakes than blades and include tranchet axes and very small scrapers. . More recent work casts doubt on the antiquity of the people who were responsible for the Larnian industry; association with Neolithic remains suggests that they should be considered not as Mesolithic but rather as contemporary with the Neolithic farmers. The Larnian could then be interpreted as a specialized aspect of contemporary Neolithicculture. Lake and riverside finds, especially along the River Bann, show a comparable tradition. A single radioactive carbon date of 5725 +/- 110 BC from Toome Bay, north of Lough Neagh, for woodworking and flint has been cited in support of a Mesolithicphase in Ireland.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in northeast New South Wales, Australia with evidence of diprotodon, protemnodon, and other megafauna in association with artifacts. Kartan material is dated to 19,300 bp.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Folsomsite in eastern Colorado with occupation c 11,000 BP, also with Archaic and Late Archaic components. It was a kill, butchering, and campsite and may have been a seasonal meeting and camping place for hunting groups. The Folsom is characterized by a distinct leaf-shaped projectile point, and a variety of scrapers, knives, and blades. It marked the first association in the Americas of man-made artifacts with the bones of long-extinct mammalian forms
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A technique used to identify and interpret depositional environments in which archaeological deposits are found. The lithofacies are determined by geometry, vertical sequences, and lateral associations. Lithofacies models or maps, generalized summaries of sediment characteristics of specific depositional environments, serve as guides to interpretation. Such a map shows variation in the overall lithologic character of a given stratigraphic unit and its changing composition throughout its geographic extent.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Llano tradition CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The earliest Palaeoindian Big Game Hunting culture, from the plains of New Mexico, 10,000-9000 BC. Best-known is the type site of Blackwater Draw; other sites were located in what was once boggy lakeshore. Its chief diagnostic trait is the presence of Clovis materials, especially the fluted point, in association with mammoth remains. Evidence of the culture exists throughout North America: as far south as Iztapan, Mexico, as far north as Worland, Wyoming, and possibly as far east as Debert, Nova Scotia. The large plateau of Llano Estacado covered eastern New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle.
Lund, Peter W. (1801-1880)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: Danish naturalist who excavated more than 800 caves in Brazil. His finds of fossilized animals were used by Darwin in his evolution research. The discovery of human bones in association with animal remains from the Pleistocene led him to suggest in 1844 that these animals might have been contemporary with an antediluvian" man."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Magellan complex CATEGORY: chronology; culture DEFINITION: A chronological sequence covering 8000 BC-1000 AD constructed on the basis of assemblages from Fell's Cave and the Palli Aike Cave in Patagonia, South America. The sequence is divided into five phases, describing a series of hunting and marine adaptations. The earliest assemblage (Magellan I) contains fishtail projectile points, signifying Paleoindian activity. Horse and sloth bones and the remains of three partly cremated Dolichocephalic humans, found in association with these points, have produced a single radiocarbon date of c 8700 BC. A shift to willow-leaf points occurred in Magellan II c 8000-4000 BC, which coincides with the disappearance of Pleistocenemegafauna and widespread climatic change. Magellan IV-V are ill-defined but represent a continuing hunting strategy blending into a period of ceramicuse.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A ceramicstyle developing out of Coyotlatelco and first appearing in association with major architecture at Tula, Mexico in the post-Classic Toltecphase (9th-12th century AD). The orange-on-buff (or red-on-buff) pottery was decorated by straight or wavy parallel lines produced by multiple brushes.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Meadowcroft rock shelter CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter in Pennsylvania with a long series of stratified deposits spanning the period from at least 14,000 BC up to the 18th century AD -- Palaeoindian, Archaic, Late prehistoric, and historic periods. The site was occupied intermittently by groups representing all the major cultural stages in northeastern North America. Charcoal samples in the lowest stratum have yielded dates in the range 35,000-19,500 BC, although there was no association with cultural material. Flint tools bear a resemblance to finds at Blackwater Draw and Lindenmeier. The evidence from Meadowcroft established beyond reasonable doubt the presence of a human population south of the ice masses in the Late Pleistocene. Meadowcroft provides some of the earliest reliable evidence of man in North America.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Nea Nikomidhia CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Early Neolithictellsettlement in Macedonia in northern Greece. From a large structure (shrine?) in the center of the mound, there were terra-cotta female figurines thought to have been used in rituals. The remains of rectangular mud houses, a number of crouched burials, and plain and painted pottery, frogs carved from greenstone, flint blades, and many ground stone axes have been found. Radiocarbon dates of c 6200-5300 BC was obtained. The earliest known domesticated cattle date from about 6000 BC at Nea Nikomedeia, in association with cultivated einkorn, emmer, and barley.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Terrace site in the Solo River valley in Java, Indonesia, which had remains of Pleistocenefauna and advanced Homo erectus (Solo Man) of c 200,000 years ago. Solo Man has features of earlier Java Man, and has also been regarded as a tropical Neanderthal. Faunal associations are Upper Pleistocene, and age estimates range from 60,000-300,000 years. There was a stoneindustry of choppers and retouched flakes, but it may not be associated with Solo Man.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: modern Yorgan Tepe CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A provincial center with Old Akkadian, Old Assyrian, and Middle Assyrian/Hurrian levels ('Ubaid to Sassanian times), near Kirkuk (ancient Arrapha) in northern Mesopotamia (Iraq). A palace and private houses of the 15th-14th centuries BC were excavated and finds include some 20,000 Old Akkadianclay tablets of the 23rd century BC. There is material from a mid-2nd millennium occupation associated with the kingdom of Arrapkha and with the Mitanni. Texts recovered provide the richest available documentation of the Mitanni empire. During the 2nd half of 2nd millennium BC, Nuzi was known as Gasur. Its distinctive type of pottery (Nuziware) dates to the time of association with the Mitanni and is found at other sites such as Tell Atchana from the mid-2nd millennium BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ochre Colored Pottery; OCP CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: An Indian potterytype, a distinctive ceramic of post-Harappan upper Ganges Valley. It is a thick and usually badly fired and badly preserved red ware with an ochre wash and its importance lies in the fact that it serves to bridge the gap in the later 2nd millennium between the Harappan material of the Indus Civilization and the black-and-red and painted-gray wares of the Iron Age. The earliest date for the ware comes from Jodhpura in Rajasthan c early 3rd millennium BC, but in the upper Ganges Valley it has early 2nd millennium BC dates. It has been found in association with a harpoon of Gangetichoard type at Saipai and with Gangetic hoards.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: The shoulder-blade of an ox or large cow which has been used to shovel up broken rock and soil. Discarded and broken examples of such shovels are well represented at Neolithic and early Bronze Age sites in the British Isles, usually in association with ANTLER PICKS and antler rakes which, together perhaps with baskets, leather ropes, and wooden levers, comprising the main tool kit of those responsible for earthmoving.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Paccaicasa CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The earliest stone tool complex of the Ayacucho Valley, in the central highlands of Peru, which may represent man's earliest presence in South America. Radiocarbon dates of 17,620 BC and 12,730 BC were obtained from sloth bone found in association with crude stone tools and flakes of volcanic tuff. Choppers, bifacial tools, and waste flakes therefore dated between 18,000-12,000 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Paleoindians; Early Lithic CATEGORY: culture; chronology DEFINITION: One of the prehistoric people who migrated from Asia and settled throughout the Americas no later than 10,000 BC. They existed as big-game hunters from about 10,000 BC to about 6000 BC in the Great Plains and eastern North America. (The other tradition at the time was the Desert-culture peoples of the western basin-rangeregion.) Some regard the term as referring to all hunting groups involved with now-extinct mammals, in which case the peoples who hunted the species of bison that became extinct about 4500 BC would also be classified as Paleo-Indians. The oldest remains of the Paleo-Indian tradition are found on sites where large Pleistocene mammals were killed and butchered. The most distinctive artifact type of this horizon is the Clovis Fluted projectile point, which was accompanied by sidescrapers. Paleo-Indians are most frequently associated with mammoth, although associations with extinct species of bison, horse, and camel have also been reported. The term also refers to the earliest period in New World chronology, representing the time up to the development of agriculture and villages. In yet another sense, it refers to the period in archaeology (also called Early Lithic) beginning with the earliest stone tools, about 750,000 years ago.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Middle Pleistocenechopper-chopping toolculture from Java characterized by coarse flakes in the shape of cleavers, known from a very prolific site in south central Java. In the Patjitanian, the main types of implements consist of single-edged choppers and chopping tools that occur in association with primitive flakes with unprepared, high-angle striking platforms. There are also pointed, bifacial implements that have been described as crude hand axes.
Pengelly, William (1812-1894)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: A British geologist and archaeologist who did cave excavation and demonstrated the antiquity of Palaeolithic artifacts by showing that stone tools made by humans were contemporary with remains of extinct animals. At Kent's Cavern, he was able to confirm the conclusions of Reverend J. MacEnery that flint tools were associated with the bones of extinct animals. Though this association was not widely accepted, he continued to find further proof with work at Windmill Cave, Brixham (Devon). He gained academic support and, in 1859, John Evans and several of Britain's leading geologists joined him in contradicting the 4004 BC date as the Creation of man. The discoveries of Jacques Boucher de Perthes in the Somme Valley in France corroborated Pengelly's findings and were used to demonstrate the antiquity of man in 1859, the same year that saw the publication of Darwin's revolutionary Origin of Species"."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Roman town lying at the foot of Mount Vesuvius in Campania, Italy, which was covered with volcanic ash in an eruption in 79 AD. Much of the town has been uncovered since excavations began in the mid-18th century. The uncovering of the city offers much evidence for prosperous provincial urban life in the 1st century AD. It was a port and principal city on the Bay of Naples as early as the 8th century BC. In 89 BC, Pompeii was taken by Roman general Sulla and became subject to Rome. A new suburb was laid out next to the old town before an earthquake in 62 AD; much rebuilding in Roman imperial style was done before the final disaster. A Doric temple of the 6th century BC together with Attic Black-Figure Ware suggests a strong Greek presence, and association with Cumae, Naples, and Paestum is probable; Etruscan influence is also very likely. The deposits from Vesuvius in 79 AD was first small pumice and then ash, followed by poisonous gas and rain. Of all the numerous surviving buildings, Pompeii is perhaps most celebrated for its atrium-style private houses, often having fine gardens and decorated inside with elaborate mosaics and mural panels. The amphitheater is probably the earliest stone-built example in existence. There were two theaters, a palaestra, civic buildings, workshops, at least three major public bath complexes and nine temples. In particular, the Temple of Isis reflects the popularity of the personalized Oriental mystery cults under the early Roman Empire. Pompeian life is further documented by the frequent painted and inscribed notices, or graffiti, which are to be found on both internal and external walls. They often refer to local elections and to events taking place at the amphitheater. There was also a gambling den and brothel. Outside the city gates were cemeteries and large residential villas. During the eruption, both human beings and animals were covered by the deposit, forming paralyzed shapes. Casts made from these give a startling impression of the original victims. There are ancient accounts of the earthquake by Seneca, Tacitus, and Pliny the Younger. Also destroyed were the cities of Herculaneum and Stabiae. The ruins at Pompeii were first discovered late in the 16th century by the architect Domenico Fontana. Excavation of the buried cities began first at Herculaneum, in 1709. Work did not begin at Pompeii until 1748, and in 1763 an inscription (rei publicae Pompeianorum") was found that identified the site as Pompeii."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in peninsular Malaysia where a Southeast Asian-type boat burial of the early centuries AD was found in association with pottery similar to that of Kuala Selinsing.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Small ceramic vessel in a range of shapes, but typically less than 50mm high, found in early Bronze Age burials in northwestern Europe, usually in association with an urn of some kind. Also called incense cups and accessory vessels.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Arachosia CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in Afghanistan with Classical associations containing pottery of the Timurid period late 14th-15th century AD.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: relational dimension CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method of defining variation in artifacts according to which other artifacts they are found with. A characteristic of an artifact based on the other artifacts it is found in association with.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A clay weathered in place, remaining in association with its parent rock; a primary clay as distinguished from a secondary clay
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A principal city of prehistoric and classic Cyprus, located on the east coast of the island, north of modern Famagusta. According to the Homeric epics, Salamis was founded after the Trojan War by the archer Teucer, who came from the island of Salamis, off Attica. This literary tradition probably reflects the Sea Peoples' occupation of Cyprus (c 1193 BC). Later, the city grew because of its harbor; it became the chief Cypriot outlet for trade with Phoenicia, Egypt, and Cilicia. Salamiscame under Persian control in 525 BC. In 306 BC, Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedonia won a great naval victory there over Ptolemy I of Egypt. Salamis was sacked in the Jewish revolt of 115-117 AD and suffered repeatedly from earthquakes. It was completely rebuilt by the Christian emperor Constantius II (reigned 337-361 AD) and given the name Constantia. Under Christian rule, Salamis was the metropolitan see of Cyprus. Destroyed again by the Arabs under Mu'awiyah (c 648), the city was then abandoned. There is a large area of surviving ruins, and an extensive necropolis to the west. The Mycenaean settlement was probably at Enkomi. Most remarkable are the so-called 'Royal Tombs', perhaps dating from the Late Geometric period, featuring large dromoi. The burial chambers are constructed of large rectangular blocks and have gable roofs, but were robbed in antiquity. There is an association with horse-and-chariot funerary rites, and horse skeletons still complete with bit in mouth have been discovered. There are also bronzehorse accouterments, and cauldron and tripod, and ivory furniture. One tomb shows evidence for an original upper beehive structure or tholos; other tombs are rock-cut and show evidence for rites involving pyres and clay figurines.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sambungmatjan CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The find-site on the Solo River, Java, of Homo erectus ancestor fossils (specifically a cranium) with Middle or Upper Pleistocene faunal associations. It is perhaps slightly earlier than the population from Ngadndong, further downstream on the Solo River. Some stone tools were found at Sambungmachan, believed to be the first found in the same context as Homo erectus in Java.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method developed by Sir Flinders Petrie (for Egyptian predynastic cemeteries) for dating a group of similar objects according to their archaeological sequence. By studying the typology the changing forms of certain artifacts, they may be set into sequence. Petrie used it to arrange undated graves into a hypothetical (relative) chronological order according to the typology and association of the artifacts found in them (based on a stylistic seriation of Egyptian pre-dynastic tombpottery). Artifacts found at other sites were then correlated with the sequence and given a sequence date. The technique can only be used to determine whether one type of artifact is earlier or later than another; it cannot show length of time between two. This type of seriation, when combined with cross-dating, is still useful in the absence of other dating methods.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: naos, per, sanctuary CATEGORY: structure; artifact DEFINITION: The innermost element of a temple where the cult image or bark of the deity was placed or the elaborate boxes containing funerary statuary. It was a repository for relics; either fixed, as a tomb, or movable, as a feretory. A shrine can be a case, box, or receptacle, especially one in which sacred relics (as the bones of a saint) are deposited -- or a place in which devotion is paid to a saint or deity (sanctuary). A shrine can also be a niche containing a religious image, a receptacle (as a tomb) for the dead, or a place or object worshipped in association.
Smith, Charles Roach (1807-1890)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: The founder in 1843 of British Archaeological Association, who gave the British Museum 5,000 items from his collection. He also gave artifacts to a private museum at Strood in Kent and published seven volumes of Collectanea Antiqua (1848-1880).
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in Somerset, southwest England, that is one of the more important secular Dark Age sites in Britain. It is an Iron Age hillfort with a history of abandonment and refortification throughout the prehistoric, Roman and medieval periods. The 16th-century antiquarian John Leyland first recognized South Cadbury's links with the Dark ages and named it as Camelot, thus initiating its romantic associations with the Arthurian legend.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The natural statistical distribution of a series of measurements around an arithmetic mean value; a measure of the scatter (variability, dispersion, spread) about the mean in a distribution. In archaeology, it is used in association with chronometric dating techniques like radiocarbon dating, where each measurement is a calculation of date for the sample, and the final date given, e.g. 2,400 ? 200, is a statistical description of a 'real' date. The standard deviation (?) as quoted means that there is a 66% chance of the real date lying within that range (for the above example, between 2,600-2,200). For greater probability, the date must be taken to two standard deviations (there is a 95% certainty that the date lies between 2,800-2,000) or three standard deviations (99% certainty). A single date with a relatively large error is generally of less use than a series of dates from the same context, which may show a clustering around a central date.
CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: A grouping or association of artifacts, based on form and functional criteria. A subassemblage is assumed to represent a single occupational group within a prehistoriccommunity.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Large complex of limestone caves in southwest Palawan, the Philippines, which have produced a sequence ranging from c 22,000 BC to the late metal age. Tabon Cave itself has a flakeindustry of early Australian typedating from 30,000-9000 years ago, in association with early Australoid skeletal remains which are dated c 22,000-20,000 BC. A simple bladetechnology appears in Duyong Cave c 5000 BC and other caves continue through the Neolithic (c 3800-500 BC) and into a rich jar-burialtradition elsewhere in the Philippines. There are also later deposits with Chinese ceramic imports.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Tagua-tagua CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Lakeside site in central Chile with stone artifacts (unifacial tools, blades) of a Levallois-Mousteriantype and bone tools in association have been found with mastodon, horse, and deer bones, c 9400 BC or older. The combination indicates a Paleoindian presence at an early date. Butchering scars on bone and other lithic evidence strongly suggest a switch to the Big Game Hunting Tradition.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site west of the Air Mountains in the Tamesna of Niger, Africa, where pottery occurs in one of its earliest known Saharan contexts c 7300 BC. The sherds were found in association with barbed boneharpoon heads. Also, bone harpoons associated with lucustrine fauna have been dated to c 9400 bp.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Thunderbird site CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeoindian and Archaic campsites at Flint Run, Virginia, with a long-exploited jasperquarry. Core fragments, flakes, and broken or preformed tools show a large flintknappingindustry. Occupations began in Clovis times through the Archaic. Postholes in association with living floors dated to c 9000 BC raises the possibility of this being the site of the earliest house structures in America.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Island and flourishing ancient city in the Laguna Veneta (Venice Lagoon), Italy. Founded in 452 AD by refugees from Altino on the mainland, Torcello was the head of an association of the communes of the lagoon until the seat of government was moved to the Rialto in 811. Excavations revealed an important glassmaking center and the remains of a 6th-7th century kiln that was producing a great range of glass tablewares.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Any object from the natural world, usually an animal, with which a particular clan or tribe considers itself to have a special association or even blood relationship. It is also the term for a representation of such in an emblem or badge or a group of people within a Native American nation who share the same totem.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A miningarea and village in Zaire on the Kasai River where Early Iron Age pottery vessels of Urewe type were found in an undated context and without further archaeological associations. The discovery has been used as evidence for an early spread of Early Iron Age industries along the southern fringes of the equatorial forest.
Uhle, Max (1856-1944)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: Peruvian archaeologist, one of the greatest in South American archaeology. He was one of the first to useartifactstyle and stratigraphic associations to produce a chronological sequence. Uhle was the first to apply the principles of stratigraphy and seriation to central Andean material, and he carried out more fieldwork in western South America than any scholar before or since. He worked at Tiahuanaco, Pachacamac, at several Mochica sites, an early Chimú cemetery, in the valleys of Chincha, Moche, Chancay, and Ica; near Ancon, near Cuzco, and in Chile and Ecuador. He established the Early, Middle, and Late Tiahuanaco and Inca Ceramic sequence, which though corrected and elaborated, still stands today. His more than 130 volumes of unpublished notes and other records are housed at the University of California.
Yorkshire vase food vessel
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Distinctive early Bronze Age ceramic vessel found mainly in eastern England in association with inhumation burials. Characterized by coarse fabrics made into thick-walled vessels with flat bases, decoration on the shoulder and rim, and often with perforated lugs. Dates for this style of pottery centre on the period 1800-1400 BC.