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DEFINITION: The god of Thebes (Upper Egypt) who came into prominence with the dynasties of the Middle and New Kingdoms. Many pharaohs from the 11th Dynasty onward include his name in theirs, as Amenemhet and Tutankhamen. Amen is associated with the ram, though represented in human form, and sometimes incorporated with the sun god Ra.
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: The name of four of the 12th Dynasty pharaohs, under whom the Middle Kingdom of Egypt reached its peak of development, c 1938-1756 BC. The name meant "Amun is at the head". They include Amenemhet I (1938-1908 BC) (Sesostris I or Senwosret 1918-1875 BC) Amenemhet II (1876-1842 BC) (Sesostris II 1844-1837 BC) Amenemhet III (1818-1770 BC) (Sesostris III 1836-1818 BC) and Amenemhet IV (c 1770-1760 BC) (also Sebeknefru 1750-1756 BC the first attested female monarch).
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: The name of four pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, 1390-1353 BC. Amenhotep III (Amenhotep the Magnificent) was the most powerful, reigning 1514-1593 BC. He was preceded by Amenhotep I (1514-1493 BC) and Amenhotep II (c 1426-1400 BC) and succeeded by Amenhotep IV (1352-1336 BC), who was better known by his adopted name of Akhenaten. The name meant "Amun is content". Amenhotep I the founder of the dynasty extended Egypt's boundaries in Nubia (modern Sudan). Amenhotep III devoted himself to promoting diplomacy and to extensive building in Egypt and Nubia. Amenhotep IV tried to establish the monotheistic cult of Aten.
Amenhotep son of Hapu (c. 1440-1360 BC)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: A high official during the reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt whose offices included chief royal architect. In this capacity, he probably supervised the construction of Amenhotep III's mortuary temples at Thebes near modern Luxor, the building of another temple in Nubia (modern Sudan), the extraction of stone for sculpting reliefs, and the commissioning of royal statues such as the Colossi of Memnon. Amenhotep III even ordered the building of a small funerary temple for Athribis, his honorary designation, next to his own temple, which was a unique honor for a nonroyal person in Egypt.
Kamennaya Mogila
DEFINITION: A Mesolithic or Aceramic Neolithic site in the southern Ukraine, similar to that of the Bug-Dniester culture at Soroki.
Ornament Horizon
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A brief period in the Middle Bronze Age of southwest Britain marked by the occurrence, in hoards, of tools and bronze ornaments which owe their inspiration to types current in north Germany and Scandinavia from c 1400 BC. These 'foreign' objects include torcs, coiled finger rings, ribbed bracelets, knobbed sickles, and square-mouthed socketed axes. In Devon, Somerset, and Sussex, hoards of the Ornament Horizon also contain native spearheads, palstaves, and quoit-headed pins. This influx seems to have given a boost to the native bronze industry.
Stroke-Ornamented Ware
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Stroke-Ornamented Pottery culture; Stichbandkeramik
CATEGORY: ceramics; culture
DEFINITION: Early / Middle Neolithic culture of west-central Europe, developed directly out of the Linear Pottery culture, c 4000-3800 BC. The pottery has zigzag patterns made by a series of distinct jabs rather than continuous lines. Bohemia, southwest Poland, Bavaria, and central Germany were its locale. The culture had longhouses which were slightly trapezoidal.
anchor ornament
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An anchor-shaped terra cotta object with a perforation through the shank. These were widespread in the Early Bronze Age of Greece and appear later in Sicily and Malta. Grooving, as if from thread wear, suggests that these objects may have been part of looms.
combed ornament
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Any pottery decorated by drawing a toothed instrument across the surface of the soft clay or colored slip. The pottery was often decorated by the application of two or more different-colored slips that was either brushed or combed to produce the effect of marbled paper, a broad band of parallel incisions, often wavy.
cord ornament
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Pottery decoration produced by impressing a twisted cord into the surface of the soft clay. Sometimes short individual motifs were produced by wrapping a cord around a stick (Peterborough ware), or part or the whole of a vessel was wrapped closely in cord (Corded Ware and some varieties of Beaker).
cord-ornamented pottery
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cord-marked pottery
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Ceramic vessels whose outer faces are decorated with motifs created by pressing twisted cord into the soft clay surface before the pot was fired. Sometimes short individual motifs are represented (also called ?maggot impressions') where a length of cord has been wrapped around a small stick and then used as a stamp. In other cases long pieces of cord have been closely coiled around the pot and then pressed into the surface.
dog-tooth ornament
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An ornament consisting of a series of pyramidal flowers of four petals, typical of 13th century AD work.
foramen magnum
DEFINITION: A large oval opening in the base of the skull through which the medulla oblongata passes, linking the spinal cord and brain. Its position is an indication of posture. If the foramen magnum is far forward on the skull base, it indicates an upright posture, like that of humans, with the head balanced on top of the spine. In four-footed animals, the head hangs from the end of the vertebral column, and the foramen magnum is placed posteriorly. In apes, with the assumption of semierect posture, the foramen had moved partially downward and forward. In human evolution, the foramen magnum has continued to move forward as an aspect of adaptation to walking on two legs, until the head became balanced vertically on top of the vertebral column.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Book containing the prayers and order of ceremony used at (Catholic) church services.

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