(View exact match)AmuqCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A swampy plain in northern Syria east of Antioch (Antakya) at the foot of the Amanus mountains and beside the Orontes River at the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea. Its important sites Tayanat (Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Atchana (Copper Age to Hittite), and Antioch (Hellenistic and Roman). The plain is rich in tell settlements of the prehistoric and later periods. The basic prehistoric sequence for the area has phases designated by letters, as 'Amuq A represents the Early Neolithic.
Display More Results
Atchana, TellSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Alalakh
DEFINITION: A mound on the Amuq plain of northern Syria (southeastern Turkey), next to the River Orontes and identified as the ancient city of Alalakh with occupation levels from the 4th-late 2nd millennium BC. Seventeen building phases spanned c 3400-1200 BC, including a long Copper Age, a period as an independent state, and one as a provincial capital of the Hittites. There was a mix of cultural influences from Mesopotamia and the Aegean. Atchana was wealthy from trade and from the timber of the Amanus Mountains. Woolley discovered the remains of a small kingdom of largely Hurrian population. In level VII, dated to the 18th and 17th centuries BC, was the palace of Yaram-Lim II (Yamhad) demonstrating an early form of Syrian architecture in which stone, timber and mud-brick were all used. Another palace was excavated in level IV, of the late 15th and early 14th centuries, belonging to Niqmepa, with rooms around a central court and a large number of tablets in Akkadian cuneiform. The tablets describe trading with cities such as Ugarit and the Hittite capital Hattusas, involving food products such as wheat, wine, and olive oil. Later in the 14th century the city fell to the Hittites and became a provincial capital of the Hittite empire. It was eventually abandoned after destruction c 1200 BC, perhaps at the hands of the Peoples Of The Sea.JudeidahCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A tell site in the Amuq plain of northern Syria. Its lowest level, XIV, was of the Neolithic Mersin type, with a long series of succeeding deposits.Khirbet KerakSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Beth-yerah; Tell Beth Yerah
CATEGORY: site; artifact
DEFINITION: A Palestinian site on the southwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, settled from the Early-Middle Bronze Age and occupied again from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. In the 4th-3rd millennia BC, it was a small walled town which lent its name to a distinctive pottery ware (Khirbet Kerak ware, c 3400) which has been found on many sites throughout the Near East, from Judeidah in the Amuq to Lachish in the south. This highly burnished ware with red or black slip is often incised or ribbed in decoration. Its origins lie up in the southern Caucasus (it was related to Early Transcaucasian wares), from which it was likely carried south by an emigration of the ancestors of the Hittites. The pottery belongs to the EB III phase and has a wide distribution in Syria and Palestine. It is usually thought to have originated in northeast Anatolia and may have been distributed either by emigration or by trade. The town of the mid-3rd millennium BC contains a massive public building, probably a religious structure, that comprises eight circular stone structures all enclosed by a massive outer rectangular wall.SakcagozuSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sakçagöze, Sakje-Gözü, Sakçe Gözü, Sakjegeuzu
DEFINITION: A tell site in southeast Turkey, occupied in the Early Neolithic (comparable to Mersin) and a palace site of the Syro-Hittites of the early 1st millennium BC. The latter has produced quantities of important reliefs and inscriptions. The Neolithic period had a sequence of wares relating the Amuq and Halaf pottery styles. The fortification walls, nearly 12 feet thick, were strengthened by projecting external buttresses and by turrets at the corners. The palace was approached through a portico with a beautiful series of sculptures showing strong Assyrian influence. The whole mound was composed of stratified debris of the 5th and early 4th millennia BC.