(View exact match)BantuCATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: A Niger-Congo language family, with approximately 60,000,000 speakers of more than 200 distinct languages, who occupy almost the entire southern projection of the African continent (roughly from the bulge downward). The classification is linguistic as the cultures of the Bantu speakers are extremely diverse. The languages are closely interrelated, indicating expansion of the population from a single source, probably the eastern Nigeria/Cameroon area. Throughout the region these first farming settlements are marked by a common pottery tradition, the 'Early Iron age' complex.
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Kalambo FallsCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site on the Zambia-Tanzania border at the southeast corner of Lake Tanganyika which has yielded one of the longest archaeological sequences (100,000 years) in sub-Saharan Africa and important pollen and radiocarbon data. The ancient lake deposits preserved objects from the Stone and Iron Ages. The oldest deposit contained Late Acheulian tools, dating to the late Middle Pleistocene. Wooden objects, food remains, and evidence that man was already using fire have been found. Pollen preserved in the deposits indicates that the local late Acheulian climate was cooler and wetter than that of today. The sequence continued with Sangoan (radiocarbon dated to 50,000-40,000 BC), followed by Early Middle Stone Age (Lupemban, 30,000 BC) industries related to those of the Congo, then Magosian, and a microlith-using Late Stone Age culture of Wilton type, and finally (from mid-4th century AD) remains of early agricultural and iron-using peoples who were probably of Bantu stock. Early Iron Age occupation of the Kalambo basin appears to have been established by the 4th century AD and to have continued through much of the 1st millennium.KhoikhoinSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Khoi, Khoikhoi, Khoekhoe; Hottentots
DEFINITION: A Stone Age pastoral people of southwestern Africa during the last 2000 years. The first European explorers found them in the hinterland and they now live either in European settlements or on official reserves in South Africa or Namibia. Khoikhoin (meaning "men of men") is their own name for themselves; Hottentot is the term fashioned by the Dutch (later Afrikaner) settlers probably in imitation of the clicks in their language. They may be descended from Bantu speakers of northern Botswana. They have cattle sheep and goats and make pottery.MadagascarCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa which was one of the last major tropical land masses to be settled by man. There is no evidence for human presence prior to the 1st millennium AD. It is generally accepted that the island's first settlers came from Indonesia, perhaps from Borneo. Later, probably in about the 11th century AD, Bantu-speaking immigrants from East Africa also arrived.Natal Early Iron AgeCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A South African province of Natal which has traces of the furthest southeastern extension of the Early Iron Age complex of sub-Saharan Africa, which has been linked with the dispersal of peoples speaking Bantu languages. Evidence for Early Iron Age settlement is found in the fertile areas of the lower river valleys and dates from about the 4th century AD. Closely related sites are known from the Transvaal, as at Broederstroom and Lydenburg.hunter-gathererCATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A way of life in which subsistence is based on the hunting of animals and the collection of wild plants rather than settled agriculture. It is a collective term for the members of small-scale mobile (to be near seasonally available wild foods) or semi-sedentary societies and the organizational structure is based on bands with strong kinship ties. This way of life is believed to have lasted for over 3 million years during the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It survived down to recent times over considerable areas: Australia until the Europeans, South Africa until the Portuguese and Bantu, America until the Europeans settled, and Siberia.