SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Roman Deva, Castra Devana CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of the Roman headquarters of the 20th Legion. It was an important Roman town but was deserted by the early 5th century. There are a number of Roman remains, including the foundations of the north and east walls. Modern Chester overlies the massive Roman camp (castra) of some 24 hectares, sited strategically on the River Dee. Perhaps already a small fort by 60 AD, the fortress and an aqueduct were firmly established in 76-79. Outside the fortifications lay a civilian settlement, an amphitheater, cemeteries, and quarries. Roman abandonment came about 380.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A regional type of late Saxonpottery (Saxo-Norman pottery) dating to the period AD 850 to AD 1150 manufactured in northwest England.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Camulodunum, Camolodunum; Colneceaste; Colcestra CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A district and borough northeast of London, England that was the capital of the pre-Roman Belgic ruler Cunobelinus by 43 AD, formerly an Iron Age Celtic settlement (oppidum) surrounded by dikes. Though it burned down in 60 AD, Colchester soon became one of the chief towns in Roman Britain and there are surviving walls and gateways from this period. Some of the masonry of the temple to Claudius survives in the foundations of the Norman castle.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Roman Portus Adurni CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of extensive Saxon occupation, a shore fort in Hampshire, southern England. There was some use of the site from the 1st century AD, though the Roman stone, flint, and tile walls are from a late 3rd century AD occupation. That lasted until 370 AD when the troops were shifted to nearby Bitterne (Roman Clausentum). The fort was deserted until Henry I constructed a keep in the northwest corner c 1120 and a Romanesquechurch was built in 1133. A castle was built in 1160-72 by Henry II.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Type of late Saxonpottery manufactured on the coast of central southern England.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Calleva Atrebatum CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An important Roman-British town which was a node on the Roman roadsystem in Britain, located in Hampshire, England. All that stands now is the impressive wall of the 1st century AD. Within it were a forum, inn, church, four temples, two baths, grid street plan, shops, and houses. An amphitheater existed outside the wall. Most of the antiquities recovered from the site are in the Reading Museum; the local Calleva Museum (1957) illustrates the life of the Roman town.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Venta Bulgarum CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Town in southwest England, capital of Late Saxon England and once ruled by Alfred the Great (871-899 AD). It has been documented through Roman and post-medieval times. It first was a walled town, then changed to planned streets with a defensive system. As the capital of Wessex; it continued to thrive during the Middle Ages as an important regional center and seat of a bishopric. It was the seat of the Danish king Canute's government (ruled 1016-1035), and several early kings, including Alfred and Canute II, were buried there.
CATEGORY: culture; artifact DEFINITION: Style of manuscript illumination, ivorycarving, stonesculpture, metalwork, embroidery, and architecture from the capital of Late Saxon England, c 10th century AD. The emphasis was on naturalistic figure design and acathus decoration is prominent in manuscripts and the stone angels carved over the chancel arch of Bradford-on-Avon church.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Late Saxon (Saxo-Norman) style of earthenwarepottery typical of the period AD 850 to 1150 and found widely in southern England and occasionally beyond. The ware is wheel-thrown in a hard sandy fabric usually with a yellowish-red or green-colored glaze. The range of vessel types includes spouted pitchers, cups, bowls, jars, tripod pitchers, and bottles. The last-mentioned appear to be skeumorphic copies of leather prototypes. Winchester ware is often decorated with lines, rouletting, stamped osettes, cordons, or applied strips.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: amphitheater CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A large-scale Roman arena open to the elements and surrounded by tiers of seats. They were constructed for exhibiting gladiatorial and other public spectacles (military displays, combats, and wild beast fights) to the populace. The earliest were oval and built of wood, later changing to stone construction. Rome's Colosseum has tiered galleries 2-3 stories in height and has provision for covering the arena with shades to protect against rain or sun. Roofing of so wide an expanse was beyond Roman technology. The arena of the Colosseum had a false timber floor, below which there was a labyrinth of service corridors. The animal cages were situated here, linked with pre-tensioned lifts and automatic trapdoors so that participants and animals could be sent up to the floor of the arena with speed and precision. Somehow Roman engineers staged the grand opening by flooding the arena for a full-scale sea battle. Amphitheatres accommodated a great number of spectators (possibly more than 50,000 at the Colosseum). The Romans derived their ideas from the classic Greek theater and stadium and the model was widely copied throughout the Roman empire. It could be erected on any terrain and set inside an urban center. An early example of the Republican period is at Pompeii the Colosseum is of the Imperial model. The fortress of Caerlon and the towns of Caerwent, Cirencester, Colchester, Dorchester, Richborough, and Wroxeter are some British places which had amphitheatres.
CATEGORY: language DEFINITION: A chronological account of events in Anglo-Saxon and Norman England, a compilation of seven surviving annals that is the primary source of the early history of England. Believed to have been started around 870, during the reign of King Alfred (871-899), it was mostly finished by 891 though further accounts were added until 1154. The annals were probably written in the monasteries of Abingdon, Canterbury, Peterborough, Winchester, and Worcester. They include vivid accounts of the Viking raids, Alfred's reign, and the period of anarchy under Stephen. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle also included the Venerable Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum" genealogies regnal and episcopal lists some northern annals and some sets of earlier West Saxon annals. The compiler also had access to a set of late 9th-century Frankish annals. The completeness and quality of the entries vary for different periods; the Chronicle has sparse coverage of the mid-10th century and the reign of Canute for example but is an excellent authority for the reign of Aethelred the Unready and from the reign of Edward the Confessor until the annal ends in 1154. The Chronicle survived in seven manuscripts (one of these being destroyed in the 18th century) and a fragment which are generally known by letters of the alphabet. The oldest the A version is written in one hand up till 891 and then continued in various hands. The B version and the C version are copies made at Abingdon from a lost archetype. B ends at 977 whereas C which is an 11th-century copy ends mutilated in 1066. The D version and the E version share many features. D which was written up until 1079 probably remained in the north whereas the archetype of E was taken south and continued at St. Augustine's Canterbury and was used by the scribe of manuscript F. The extant manuscript E is a copy made at Peterborough written in one stretch until 1121. It is the version that was continued longest. The F version is an abridgment in both Old English and Latin made in the late 11th or early 12th century based on the archetype of E but with some entries from A and it extends to 1058. The fragment H deals with 1113-14 and is independent of E."
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The name of the combined cultures, the Angles and the Saxons, who left their North Sea coastal homelands in the 5th century AD and moved to eastern England after the breakdown of Roman Rule. The name derives from two specific groups --- the Angles of Jutland and the Saxons from northern Germany. Some other Germanic peoples took part in the migrations, such as the Jutes and the Frisians, and they are sometimes included under this name. The language, culture, and settlement pattern of medieval and later England can be traced directly to the Anglo-Saxons. The movement to the area probably began in the 4th century when barbarian Foederati went to serve in the Roman army in Britain. The main immigration began in the middle of the 5th century. Bede, writing in the early 8th century, gives the only reliable historical record for this period, though incidental information can be found in the Old English literature, particularly the poem of Beowulf. The English kingdoms took shape by the late 6th century. Archaeologically, there are three periods: the Early or PaganSaxonperiod went until the general acceptance of Christianity in the mid-7th century; the Middle Saxonperiod until the 9th century, and the Late Saxonperiod which went up till the Norman invasion of 1066. The earliest period's remains are mainly burial deposits, often cremation in urns or by inhumation in cemeteries of trench graves or under barrows. Grave goods often include knives, sword or spear, shieldboss, and brooches, buckles, beads, girdle-hangers, and pottery -- depending on the gender. Most archaeological evidence comes from the cemeteries, including the exceptional ship burial at Sutton Hoo. Churches were built and in the Middle and Late Saxon periods, including Bradford-Upon-Avon and Deerhurst. Important monuments of the Middle and Late Saxon periods are the royal palaces at Yeavering and Cheddar. The Late Saxonperiod, after the Viking invasions, saw the growth of the first towns in Britain since the Roman period, following the establishment of Burhs in response to the Scandinavian threat. There was wide-ranging trade, developed coinage, and improved potterymanufacture and metal-working. The separate British kingdoms (most important: Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex) eventually became a unified England with a capital at Winchester in Wessex. The Anglo-Saxons were responsible for the introduction of the English language and for the establishment of the settlement patterns of medieval England.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Any of the inhabitants of Gaul north of the Sequana and Matrona (Seine and Marne) rivers of mixed Celtic and Germanic origin, first described by Julius Caesar in mid-first century BC. Their origins on the continent can be traced back to the La Tène period in the 5th century BC and evidence suggests that the Romans penetrated into those areas about 150 BC. In Caesar's day, they held much of Belgium and parts of northern France and southeast England. The Belgae of Gaul formed a coalition against Caesar after his first Gallic campaign but were subdued the following year (57 BC). During the first half of the 1st century BC, Belgae from the Marne district had crossed to Britain and had formed the kingdom that in 55 BC was ruled by Cassivellaunus. After further Gallic victories (54-51 BC) by Caesar, other settlers took refuge across the Channel, and Belgic culture spread to most of lowland Britain. The three most important Belgic kingdoms, identified by their coinage, were centered at Colchester, St. Albans, and Silchester. Archaeologically, the Belgae can be identified with the bearers of the Aylesford-Swarling culture, otherwise known as Iron Age C. Coinage, the heavy plow, and the potter's wheel were introduced by the Belgae. They lived in large fortified settlements called oppida and amphorae and Italian bronze vessels have been found in their richly furnished tombs.
Boudicca (d. AD 60)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Boadicea CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: Ancient British queen of the Iceni tribe or Norfolk who led a revolt against Roman rule in 60 AD. After suffering many cruelties to her family, herself, and her tribe at the hands of the Romans, Boudicca raised a rebellion throughout East Anglia. They burned Camulodunum (Colchester), Verulamium (St. Albans), the mart of Londinium (London), and several military posts; massacred approximately 70,000 Romans and pro-Roman Britons; and destroyed the Roman 9th Legion. The Roman governor Paulinus regained the province in a battle during which 80,000 of the rebelling tribesmen were killed and after which Boudicca took poison or died of shock.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Isca CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A town and archaeological site in Wales in which the Romans established a legionary fortress dating to 74-75 AD when the conquest of the Silures of Wales began. The foundation of the fortress is set on a terrace along the Usk and it is one of three major legionary fortresses -- the other two being at Chester and York. Originally built of timber and earth, it had been largely rebuilt in stone (253-255) before the Roman garrison left during the abandonment of the province. Evidence has been found for centurion houses, workshops, barracks, stores, ovens, hospital, baths, and latrines. There is also an amphitheater, two bath buildings, and extensive cemeteries in an associated settlement. The fortress was occupied, probably by a nonmilitary population, until the 370s. Caerleon, traditionally a seat of the legendary King Arthur, was a Welsh princely capital until the Norman Conquest (1066).
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Roman site in Sussex, England, best known for the palace/villa of Cogidubnus of the 1st century AD. The site began as a coastal depot with granaries and was replaced by a residential area and then extensive building. The palace, built in c 70-75 AD, was one of the most lavish of the time in the empire, with a formal garden court, suites of mosaic-floored rooms, stucco moldings, painted wall plaster, and a complete set of baths. Cogidubnus was the British king of the tribe of the Regni. The site lies near to Chichester, which was first a fort and then Civitas capital of the Regni. Alterations and rebuilding took place during the 2nd century, after the death of Cogidubnus, and sometime in the late 3rd-early 4th centuries there was a fire that caused unrepairable damage.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Pottery made at the legionary works depot at Holt, Denbighshire, in the late 1st and early 2nd centuries AD. Of light-red and buff fabric, often imitating Samian forms, and found mostly in Chester and adjacent areas
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Distinctive types of pottery in use by the legions in Britain especially in the mid 1st century AD, when local products were found to be inadequate. These wares were peculiar to each legion and have been identified at Wroxeter, Lincoln, York, and Caerleon, but there has only been one production centre identified, at Holt, Chester, where there was a works depot for tile-making.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Roman Londinium CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Important port and capital town of Roman Britain by about 100 AD, probably replacing the originally intended capital at Clochester. The site, on a previously unoccupied gravel plateau on the north side of the River Thames, was probably chosen as the lowest crossing point at the time of the Roman invasion in 43 AD. Use began as a supply depot and a trading center as it was a convenient starting point for the growing network of Roman roads. Burnt and ravaged by Boudicca in 60-61, the town soon revived, and capitalstatus brought a large forum (Leadenhall Market), governor's palace (Canon Street), and a legionary fort (area of London Wall). Although damaged by fire again in c 125-130, the settlement continued to consolidate its position, and a wall was added to protect it between 183-217. Continuous occupation since the Roman period has prevented much extensive excavation. The Museum of London holds marble heads of Mithras, Serapis, and Minerva from the Mithraeum and the British Museum holds the Tomb of Julius Alpinus Classicianus, procurator of Britain after Boudicca's revolt. A section of wall may be seen in Trinity Place near the Tower of London, and the Mithraeum has been reconstructed to the west of its original site, in front of Temple Court, Queen Victoria Street.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: One of the largest and most famous Iron Age hillforts in Britain, located in Dorset, England. The oldest structure on the hilltop is a Neolithic causewayed camp (c 2000-1500 BC), followed after an interval by an earthen long barrow, which is partly built over the ditches of the earlier camp. Occupation resumed in the Early Iron Age (c 5th century BC) with the construction of a hillfort (c 250 BC) which was later extended to fortify the entire hill. Maiden Castle was at that time a permanent settlement with stone and wooden huts linked by surfaced trackways. Sometime before 50 BC, the sitecame under the control of the Belgae and became the tribal capital of the Durotriges, with coinage and imported Gallo-Roman luxuries. During the Roman conquest, the fort was sacked by Vespasian's legion (43-44 AD), and the slain defenders were buried in a cemetery near the east gate. The Romans moved the remaining population to a new site at Durnovaria (Dorchester), and the hillfort was abandoned until the 4th century AD when a Romano-Celtic temple was built there.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Rutupiae CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a Roman port in Kent, England, just north of Sandwich. After the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 AD, Richborough / Rutupiae was established to guard the Wantsum Channel separating the island of Thanet from the rest of Kent. Extant remains of Richborough Castle include the north wall of a Saxon Shore fort, possibly built in the 3rd century. The fort was equipped with a military bath-suite, of which the hypocaust survives, and an external amphitheater. Closeby is the site of the landing of the Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa in 449 AD. It is also starting-point for the Roman road, Watling Street, to Chester via London. The site is now 5 km inland and no longer on the coast, following silting of the Wantsum Channel.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Terra Sigillata, terra sigillata ware CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A distinctive Roman pottery produced mainly in south and central Gaul and the Moselle valley in the first century BC and first three centuries AD; later it was made in Britain (Colchester). It was copied from Italian Arretine ware and was itself widely imitated. It is a red ware with a bright glossy surface, plain or elaborately decorated by means of molds. Its second name derives from the stamp with which the pottery frequently added his name to his products. The maker's name was stamped on the pottery, but the decorations, the shape, the fabric, all help in dating and tracing its origin. The shapes come from metal prototypes. The forms, decorations, and stamps have allowed a detailed chronology to be established. The wares provide a valuable means of dating the other archaeologicalmaterial found with them.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: General term for pottery produced in the period c. AD 850 through to AD 1150. During this time the use of the fast wheel became widespread and numerous local and regional industries emerged. The most distinctive pottery of the period is Thetford ware, Stamford ware, and Winchester ware.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Latin Iitus saxonicum CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A system for defending the coasts of southeast England against raiding Saxon pirates, begun between 287-296 AD and was later (367 AD) constituted a separate command under the Count of the Saxon Shore. It consisted of a series of forts at strategic sites from the Wash to Southhampton, usually at the mouth of estuaries which served as harbors for attached naval units. Burgh Castle near Yarmouth, Richborough in Kent, and Porchester near Portsmouth are the best preserved of these forts. The forts were massive stone structures, defended by projecting bastions, and characterized by narrow gateways. It was a comprehensive coastal command developed with communications and administration.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Roman fort and civilian settlement in Chesterholm, England, of the late 1st-early 2nd century AD, just south of Hadrian's Wall. There is a military bath house, inn, houses, and mausolea -- and thousands of fragments of documents written in ink on wood.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Roman Durobrivae; modern Rochester CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a walled Roman-British town situated where the Roman road from the English Channel ports to London crossed the River Medway at the head of its estuary. It was a large and important Roman pottery town, center of production for the Nene Valley color-coated ware. Water Newton grew out of the civilian settlement attached to an early-period Roman fort (c 45 AD). Aerial photography shows a large expanse of industrial development, marking Water Newton as one of the major industrial area of Roman Britain. The hoard of Christian silverplate from the 4th century AD, indicates local affluence and is possibly the earliest group of Christian silver of that time.