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SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Roman Deva, Castra Devana
DEFINITION: The site of the Roman headquarters of the 20th Legion. It was an important Roman town but was deserted by the early 5th century. There are a number of Roman remains, including the foundations of the north and east walls. Modern Chester overlies the massive Roman camp (castra) of some 24 hectares, sited strategically on the River Dee. Perhaps already a small fort by 60 AD, the fortress and an aqueduct were firmly established in 76-79. Outside the fortifications lay a civilian settlement, an amphitheater, cemeteries, and quarries. Roman abandonment came about 380.
Chester-type ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A regional type of late Saxon pottery (Saxo-Norman pottery) dating to the period AD 850 to AD 1150 manufactured in northwest England.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Camulodunum, Camolodunum; Colneceaste; Colcestra
DEFINITION: A district and borough northeast of London, England that was the capital of the pre-Roman Belgic ruler Cunobelinus by 43 AD, formerly an Iron Age Celtic settlement (oppidum) surrounded by dikes. Though it burned down in 60 AD, Colchester soon became one of the chief towns in Roman Britain and there are surviving walls and gateways from this period. Some of the masonry of the temple to Claudius survives in the foundations of the Norman castle.
Gorman, Chester F. (1938-1981)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: An American archaeologist who specialized in early metallurgy and horticulture in Thailand and who worked at Spirit Cave and Ban Chiang.
DEFINITION: The site of extensive Saxon occupation, a shore fort in Hampshire, southern England. There was some use of the site from the 1st century AD, though the Roman stone, flint, and tile walls are from a late 3rd century AD occupation. That lasted until 370 AD when the troops were shifted to nearby Bitterne (Roman Clausentum). The fort was deserted until Henry I constructed a keep in the northwest corner c 1120 and a Romanesque church was built in 1133. A castle was built in 1160-72 by Henry II.
Portchester ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Type of late Saxon pottery manufactured on the coast of central southern England.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Calleva Atrebatum
DEFINITION: An important Roman-British town which was a node on the Roman road system in Britain, located in Hampshire, England. All that stands now is the impressive wall of the 1st century AD. Within it were a forum, inn, church, four temples, two baths, grid street plan, shops, and houses. An amphitheater existed outside the wall. Most of the antiquities recovered from the site are in the Reading Museum; the local Calleva Museum (1957) illustrates the life of the Roman town.
DEFINITION: Town in southwest England, capital of Late Saxon England and once ruled by Alfred the Great (871-899 AD). It has been documented through Roman and post-medieval times. It first was a walled town, then changed to planned streets with a defensive system. As the capital of Wessex; it continued to thrive during the Middle Ages as an important regional center and seat of a bishopric. It was the seat of the Danish king Canute's government (ruled 1016-1035), and several early kings, including Alfred and Canute II, were buried there.
Winchester Style
CATEGORY: culture; artifact
DEFINITION: Style of manuscript illumination, ivory carving, stone sculpture, metalwork, embroidery, and architecture from the capital of Late Saxon England, c 10th century AD. The emphasis was on naturalistic figure design and acathus decoration is prominent in manuscripts and the stone angels carved over the chancel arch of Bradford-on-Avon church.
Winchester ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Late Saxon (Saxo-Norman) style of earthenware pottery typical of the period AD 850 to 1150 and found widely in southern England and occasionally beyond. The ware is wheel-thrown in a hard sandy fabric usually with a yellowish-red or green-colored glaze. The range of vessel types includes spouted pitchers, cups, bowls, jars, tripod pitchers, and bottles. The last-mentioned appear to be skeumorphic copies of leather prototypes. Winchester ware is often decorated with lines, rouletting, stamped osettes, cordons, or applied strips.

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