(View exact match)CologneSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: (Roman) Colonia Agrippinensis, Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, Colonia
DEFINITION: A site on the left bank of the Rhine, West Germany, that was colonized by the Roman general Agrippa in 53 BC. A fortified settlement was established c 38 BC and it became a Roman colony in 50 AD. It was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, shortened to Colonia. It became the capital of the province of Lower Germania, which was an important commercial center. After 258 AD it was, for a time, the capital of an empire comprising Gaul, Britain, and Spain. In 310, Constantine the Great built a castle and a permanent bridge to it across the Rhine. About 456 it was conquered by the Franks, and it soon became the residence of the kings of the Ripuarian part of the Frankish kingdom. Ceramics and glass were manufactured in Cologne in Roman times. Traces of the Roman period survive including the principal elements of the street plan, town walls and gates, Roman and Gallo-Roman temples, water installations, Rhine port, bridges and fort, pottery and glass factories, and villas and cemeteries. In the 5th century, the Roman town was overrun by the Franks. During the Frankish and Carolingian periods and much of the Middle Ages, Cologne was a major bishopric and a leading commercial and cultural center. Spectacular Frankish royal graves dating to the mid-6th century have been uncovered.
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Badorf wareCATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A type of pottery of the 8th-9th centuries in the hills of Cologne, Germany. The globular pitchers and bowls of the Carolingian period are the best known. Badorf-ware kilns have been excavated at Bruhl-Eckdorf and Walberberg and products have been found in the Netherlands, eastern England, and in Denmark. In the 9th century, the pots began to be decorated with red paint. Gradually new forms and styles known as Pingsdorf Wares evolved.Köln-LindenthalCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A settlement site of the Linear Pottery Culture outside modern Cologne, Germany. Köln-Lindenthal is recognized as a typical Danubian site with seven widely separated phases of occupation covering the Danubian I and II periods. It was the site of one of the earliest attempts to uncover a settlement plan. Post structures were identified as longhouses made of mud plaster, but was unusual for by being encircled by a ditched enclosure.Paffrath wareCATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Hard-fired ware with a black finish, made from the 10th-11th centuries until the 13th century at Paffrath, near Cologne, Germany. The best-known products of this center are the so-called handled ladles - small cooking pots or bowls with a curved handle.Pinsdorf wareCATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Hard-fired pots made in the villages in the Vorgebirge Hills, west of Cologne and Bonn in Germany. The earliest example is the Wermelskirchen coinhoard pot, dated to c 960 AD. Pingsdorf ware is characteristically decorated with red paint and commonly occurs as pitchers with thumb-impressed ring bases; smaller pots, including money-boxes and toys, were also made. The products were exported to all parts of the Rhineland, as well as Britain and Scandinavia.claw beakerSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: elephant's trunk beaker, Rüsselbecher
DEFINITION: Elaborate glass beakers dating from c 500 AD onward in Early Saxon graves and Frankish burials. Also called Rüsselbecher, the beakers have two superimposed rows of hollow, trunklike protrusions curving down to rejoin the wall of the vessel above a small button foot. In form they are similar to free-standing conical beakers, but they are embellished by a series of unusual clawlike protrusions. In many cases the glass is tinted brown, blue, or yellow. The beakers were probably made in Cologne or Trier, Germany.snake-thread glassCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Well-defined series of glasses of Roman date decorated with serpent-like lines or threads of glass which are either the same color as or differently colored from the body. The glasses were made both in the east, probably in Syria, and in the west, at Cologne and perhaps elsewhere.