SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hoabinh CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A little-known Mesolithic or Neolithicculture (early-to-mid-Holocene stone tool industry) of southeast Asia (type site is Hoa Binh, Vietnam) dating from 10,000-2000 BC. There are many chipped, pecked, and polished stone axes found in piles of shells. Its importance lies in its position between the earliest centers of rice growing in India and China, and in the part it most have played in diffusing the knowledge of agriculture into Indonesia and the Pacific. The Neolithic assemblages have pottery and ground stone tools for several millennia after 6000 BC. It is best described as a techno-complex with successive cultural accretions, the Hoabinhian cannot be regarded as an archaeological culture of chronological horizon. The majority of Hoabinhian sites found to date are in rock shelters and coastal shell middens. The three recognized phases are: archaic with unifacially workedpebble tools, intermediate with smaller pebble tools and bifacial working and edge-grinding, and late characterized by some pottery, smaller scrapers, grinding stones, knives, piercers, polished stone tools, and shell artifacts.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kampuchea CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Neolithic peoples inhabited present-day Cambodia during the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. Stone tools have been found in terraces of the Mekong River in possible association with tektites from a shower that fell c 600,000 to 700,000 years ago. In western Cambodia there is an important Hoabinhiansequence from the cave of Laang Spean dating to 4300 BC. A major Neolithicmoundsite at Somrong Sen yielded elaborate assemblage which seems to predate 100 BC. Khmercivilization developed over several distinct periods, starting with the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of Funan and Chenla in the 1st century AD, which extended into the 8th century.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A large limestone rock shelter in central Malaysia, occupied from c 10,000/8000 BC and 1000 AD. The lowest level is Hoabinhian, spanning 8000-1000 BC with burials. Neolithic burials with southern Thai / Ban Kao pottery affinities span c 1000 BC-1000 AD. Stone tools span the transition. A similar sequence is found at Kota Tongkat and Gua Cha's Neolithicsequence relates to the ancestry of the present orang asli (Austro-Asiatic-speaking aborigines) of central Malaya.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Cave site in western Cambodia, occupied between c 7000-500 BC, which has yielded a Hoabinhiansequence with an appearance of ground stone tools and pottery by perhaps 4300 BC. Succeeding layers contain more elaborate pottery and flaked stone tools.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A country of Southeast Asia, composed of two noncontiguous regions -- peninsular (West) Malaysia and East Malaysia. It has been inhabited for at least 6,000 to 8,000 years. There was a Pleistoceneassemblage (Kota Tampan), but the first coherent and widespread industry is the Hoabinhian (Gua Cha, Gua Kechil). The Neolithicculture was well established by 2500-1500 BC. Neolithic assemblages of probable Thai origin appear in north and central Malaya after 2800 BC (Gua Cha, Gua Kechil). Small Malayan kingdoms existed in the 2nd or 3rd centuries AD, when adventurers from India arrived and initiated more than 1,000 years of Indian influence.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave site in east Burma with early hunter-gatherer remains dating to c 11,000 BC, among the earliest-known Hoabinhian assemblages.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: porphyrite CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A hard stone much used in Egyptian sculpture and for sarcophagi, quarried in the eastern Egyptian desert. The volcanic rock is red, green, and black and is capable of taking a fine polish. It was a constituent element in the river pebbles used in Hoabinhianindustry.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Shell midden in northern Vietnam which has produced a flaked stone industry together with pottery, grindstones, and contracted burials dated c 3000 BC. It could be a late and specialized coastal variant of the Hoabinhian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Son Vi CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Pre-Hoabinhianstoneindustry in Upper Palaeolithic cave sites around the Red River valley of northern Vietnam. It is regarded as the immediate predecessor (or an early stage) of the Hoabinhian and of late Pleistocene date c 18,000-9000 BC. It is characterized by unifacially flaked pebbles, some bifacially worked pebbles, choppers, side-scrapers, and 'round-edged' pebbles. Son Vi is the type site of this industry.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: One of many limestone caves in northwest Thailand, occupied from before 9000 BC till c 5500 BC, intermittently. It has yielded early evidence of cultivated plants (vegetables, beans, water chestnuts) c 9000 BC, of Neolithic polished stone tools (ground stone adzes and knives) c 7000 BC, and of pottery c 6800 BC. This Hoabinhiansite show the practice of incipient forms of horticulture after hunting-and-gathering and before dependence on rice as a staple.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: Unifacially worked discoid stone tool, often made from a thin slice of the cortex of a large pebble. It is found in Southeast Asia and northern Sumatra, characteristic of some Hoabinhian assemblages.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The enlarged Southeast Asian continental area which was created when sea levels dropped in periods of glaciation. Much of western Indonesia was then connected to the mainland. Until about 7000 BC, the seas were some 150 feet (50 m) lower than they are now, and the area west of Makassar Strait consisted of a web of watered plains that is called Sundaland. These land connections may account for similarities in early human development observed in the Hoabinhian age, which lasted from about 13,000-5000/4000 BC. The stone tools across Southeast Asia during this period show a remarkable degree of similarity in design and development.