SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Holsteinian Interglacial CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: North European Middle Pleistocene warm phase occurring between the Elsterian and Saalian cold stages, c 300,000-200,000 BP. These deposits are stratified above Elster Glacial deposits and are overlain by Saaleglacial deposits. The Alpine equivalent is the Mindel-Riss and the North American equivalent is the Yarmouth. In Britain, it was the Hoxnian.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A bow-brooch with a small headplate and long footplate. From the headplate protrude three knobs; the footplate is normally shaped into an animal head with eyes and nostrils. Found in Jutland and Holstein from the late 4th century. During the 5th and 6th centuries AD cruciform brooches spread across the North Sea to Britain.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A North European Middle Pleistocene cold stage with at least one glacial advance. It began c 450,000-400,000 BP and ended c 300,000 BP with the Holsteinian Interglacial. The British equivalent is the Anglian cold stage; the Alpine is the Mindel and the North American equivalent is the Kansas.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mindel Glacial; Mindel Glacial Stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: The second major Pleistoceneglaciation of Alpine Europe which ended with the onset of the Holsteinian Interglacial. It was the second major Ice Age in the Pleistoceneperiod, shown in Quaternary deposits in the Alps and the valleys of south German rivers. The Mindel consists of moraine and related river terraces of proglacial deposits. The Mindel GlacialStage is part of the early geologic scheme (c. 1900) that first recognized the importance of multiple episodes of Pleistoceneglaciation. The stage, a period of relatively severe climatic conditions and glacial advance, preceded the Mindel-Riss Interglacial and followed the Günz-Mindel Interglacial, both periods of relatively moderate climatic conditions. The Mindel GlacialStage lasted from about 750,000 to 675,000 years ago. At least two periods of glacial advance, separated by a moderate period, are recognized in the Mindel.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Saale Glacial Stage, Saalian cold stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A division of Pleistocene deposits and time in northern Europe which followed the Holstein Interglacial Stage and preceded the Eemian Interglacial Stage. It was the penultimate cold stage in northern Europe, c 200,000-125,000 BP. The extensive and complexSaale deposits are correlated with the Wolstonian (or Gipping) GlacialStage of Britain and the Riss GlacialStage of the European Alpine region. The Saale is roughly contemporaneous with the IllinoianGlacialStage of North America. The Saale has three complex phases: the Drente, Treene, and Warthe substages. The Drente and Warthe represent periods of glacial advance, or maxima, whereas the Treene represents an interstadialperiod of glacial retreat between the early Drente and the late Warthe. In the region of central Europe, the Saale is represented by three glacial maxima separated by two periods, or interstadials, of moderating climatic conditions. One of the main features is a complexseries of end-moraines, demarcating the maximum extent of ice sheets. These ice sheets flowed out from centers in Scandinavia, across the Baltic Sea and into northern Europe and Russia. The end-moraines are split into two sets: one called the Drenthe moraines (or Dnieper), and the Warthe moraines (Moscow in the USSR). These formations are complex and each seems to represent several 'pulses' of the ice-sheet edge. The SaaleGlacialStage was named for the German river, a tributary of the Elbe.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Region in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, with sites c 3500-3000 BC, the transition from foraging to sedentary lifestyle in northern Europe. Some of the sites are of the Ertebolle/Ellerbek culture with pointed-base pots.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site near Stuttgart, Germany, where a human skull was discovered in gravels of the Holsteinian (penultimate) interglacial some 250,000 or 300,000 years ago. No artifacts were found, but the Steinheim skull is older than any Neanderthal or Homo sapiens skeleton, and is closer to the Swanscombe skull than to any other specimen. The Steinheim and Swanscombe skulls may belong to a distinct subspecies of Homo, but have also been classified as early Neanderthaloids or primitive Homo sapiens.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Yarmouth Interglacial Stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A major division of Pleistocene deposits and time in North America, named for deposits in Yarmouth, Iowa, and equivalent to the Mindel-Riss Interglacial Stage of Alpine Europe. In some places, fossil vertebrates are well represented. It was at least as warm as modern times and, in some regions, the deposits indicate that Yarmouth climates may have been semiarid. The dates are c 300,000-200,000 BP; the British equivalent is the Hoxnian and the Holsteinian Interglacial in northern Europe.