(View exact match)IliadCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: An epic poem about the Trojan War attributed to ancient Greek poet Homer, who lived c 9th-8th c BC in Ionia, part of modern-day Turkey.
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DEFINITION: City in the northeastern Peloponnese of Greece, just north of the head of the Gulf of Argolis. The name was applied to several districts of ancient Greece but it is most often used to describe the easternmost part of the Peloponnesian peninsula and the city of Argos was its capital. Homer described it as the fertile plain inhabited by Agamemnon, Diomedes, and other heroes in the "Iliad". The site was probably occupied since the Neolithic / Early Bronze Age and was very prominent in Mycenaean times (c 1300-1200 BC). Argos was probably the base of Dorian operations in the Peloponnese c 1100-1000 BC and from then on the dominant city-state of Argolis until it allied itself with Sparta after the Peloponnesian War in 420 BC. In 392 it broke with Sparta to unite with Corinth in the Corinthian War. Argos later joined the Achaean League (229) and Argos became its center after the Roman conquest and destruction of Corinth (146). The city flourished in Byzantine times and did not decline until around 1204 AD. One tyrant Pheidon is thought to have introduced primitive coinage and a weights and measures system. Archaeological excavations began in 1854 on the Argive Heraeum and Argos was famed for its connection with the goddess Hera. There was a natural sanctuary there long before the Dorians came c 1100-1000 BC. The shrine is reported to be of extreme antiquity. The statue of Hera for a new 5th-century temple was done by the celebrated sculptor Polycleitus whose work was said to rival that of Pheidias the sculptor of the Parthenon. There is material evidence of Neolithic Early and Middle Bronze Age a Mycenaean cemetery with chamber tombs Geometric and Archaic features and ruins of the classical and Roman city. The Larisa hill was evidently the Mycenaean acropolis and citadel holding a classical temple. There was also a Roman theater and small odeum. The site is mostly covered by the modern city.Homer (9th or 8th century BCE?)CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: A Greek writer of which little is known other than his name is attached to the two great epic poems of ancient Greece, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homeric archaeology is the study of the poems attributed to Homer, attempting to match the description of an object, building, social structure, or custom within the poems to the archaeological record. Heinrich Schliemann is the most well-known Homeric archaeologist, having discovered Troy.Trojan WarCATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: The legendary conflict between the early Greeks and the people of Troy in western Anatolia, dated by later Greek authors to the 12th or 13th century BC and lasting 10 years. It was described in Homer's "Iliad" and "Odyssey" as occurring when Paris son of the king of Troy eloped with Helen wife of Menelaus king of Sparta. Menelaus's brother Agamemnon king of Mycenae raised an army and besieged Troy.TroySYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hisarlik, Hissarlik, Ilion or Ilium
DEFINITION: Ancient city in northwestern Anatolia (Turkey) that holds an enduring place in both literature (the "Iliad" "Odyssey" etc.) and archaeology. A large mound called Hisarlik (or Hissarlik) by the Turks holds the ruins - as discovered by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. Between 1870-1890 Schliemann exposed most of the remains of the Early Bronze Age and showed that nine successive cities had stood on the site of which he considered the second to be that described in Homer's Iliad. Wilhelm Dörpfeld who continued excavations after Schleimann's death established a chronology for the cities and believed the sixth to be Troy. In Troy VI (c 1900-1300 BC) there was the arrival of invaders with horses and superior building techniques - possibly the Luwians. It was devastated by an earthquake c 1300 BC. Carl William Blegen who also worked there argued for the earlier part of the seventh city. Troy VIIa represents a rebuilt city along the plan of Troy VI but it was destroyed by fire c 1220 BC in what may have been the Trojan War. The nine main periods of occupation began in mid-3rd millennium BC and ended with Greco-Roman city of Ilion/Ilium. At the end of each period when a settlement was destroyed (usually by fire or earthquake or both) the survivors leveled the site and built new houses on it. Priam's gold treasure was found in Troy II c 2400-2200 BC.kraterSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: crater; bell krater; volute krater; calyx krater; column krater
CATEGORY: artifact; ceramics
DEFINITION: Ancient Greek vessel used for diluting wine with water. It usually stood on a tripod in the dining room, where wine was mixed. Kraters were made of metal or pottery and were often painted or elaborately ornamented. In Homer's "Iliad" the prize offered by Achilles for the foot race at Patroclus' funeral games was a silver krater. The Greek historian Herodotus describes many enormous and costly kraters dedicated at temples or used in religious ceremonies. Kraters are large with a broad body and base and usually a wide mouth. They may have horizontal handles placed near the base or vertical handles rising from the shoulder. Among the many variations are the bell krater confined to red-figure pottery shaped like an inverted bell with loop handles and a disk foot; the volute krater with an egg-shaped body and handles that rise from the shoulder and curl in a volute (scroll-shaped form) well above the rim; the calyx krater the shape of which spreads out like the cup or calyx of a flower; and the column krater with columnar handles rising from the shoulder to a flat projecting lip rim. Some were fitted with a strainer.