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Breasted, James Henry (1865-1935)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: American Egyptologist, archaeologist, and historian who excavated Megiddo (Armageddon), established ancient Egyptian historical periods, and founded University of Chicago's Oriental Institute (1919). Breasted promoted research on ancient Egypt and the ancient civilizations of western Asia as well as compiled a record of every known Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription and published a translation of these in a five-volume work, "Ancient Records of Egypt" (1906). He led expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) and copied inscriptions from monuments that had been previously inaccessible or were perishing. The Oriental Institute is a renowned center for the study of the ancient cultures of southwest Asia and the Middle East. His other books included "History of Egypt" (1905) and "Ancient Times" (1916) and "Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt" (1912). His excavation at Megiddo uncovered a large riding stable thought to have been King Solomon's and one at Persepolis yielded some Achaemenid sculptures.
Cajamarca
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Cajamarquilla
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An ancient Inca city, the site of the capture, ransom, and execution of the Inca chief Atahuallpa by conquistador Francisco Pizarro in 1532. In the north Peruvian highlands, Cajamarca developed a strong regional civilization and was a provincial capital, flourishing between 200-1476 AD. Cajamarca pottery is slip-painted with linear running patterns (cursive) or with stylized creatures and animal heads in brownish black over a cream background. The Spanish capture ended the Inca period and Andean prehistory. It was a cultural center during the Early Intermediate period. The cemetery, Nievería has Huari-related artifacts.
Cook, Captain James (1728-1779)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: English navigator who made three voyages of exploration in the Pacific from 1769-1779, making many discoveries in Polynesia, Melanesia, and Australia. Though Cook was not the first European to discover most of the islands he visited, his accounts of the native peoples at the crucial point of first European contact are by far the most important in maritime history. His journals are used constantly by archaeologists who work in the Pacific region.
Ford, James Alfred (1911-1968)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: American archaeologist who worked mainly in southeastern US and developed the technique of seriation of chronological ordering. He established the archaeological sequence of ceramic typology, seriation, and stratigraphy of coastal Peru. Ford argued that archaeological types were imposed on data by the classifier.
Goljamo Delcevo
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Golyamo Delchevo
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Neolithic and Copper Age tell site of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture in northeast Bulgaria. The settlement with adjoining cemetery are dated pre-4000 to 3600 BC and has 16 occupation layers with many complete house-plans. There is a system of rectangular fortifications with palisades. In the small Copper Age cemetery of 30 graves, contracted inhumation is the norm, with occasional cenotaph graves.
Jam
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A remote valley in western Afghanistan where a spectacular tower, inscribed with the name of the Ghorid ruler Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad b. Sam (1153-1203) was discovered. The tower is 65 meters high and built of brick, with an octagonal base and four cylindrical tiers, each narrower and shorter than the one below. The fourth tier is a circular arcade supporting a dome. It is usually identified as a minaret (one of the tallest in existence) and may have belonged to the 'lost' Ghorid capital, Firuzkuh.
Jamestown
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The first permanent English settlement in the United States, in present-day Tidewater, Virginia. It was founded in 1607 by 105 settlers and served for a time as the capital of Virginia. James Fort, as it was first called, was built 15 miles inland from the Chesapeake Bay, on a swampy island in the James River on the site of previous native occupation. Many structures have been found as well as a huge inventory of 17th century artifacts. The earliest settlers subsisted by fishing, trade with natives and farming of both local (maize, squash, pumpkin) and imported staples. Houses from that time were of wattle-and-daub with thatched roofs, giving way later to structures of locally made brick. Pottery and glassmaking were other local industries. In 1699, Williamsburg became the capital of the colony, after which Jamestown went into decline and was ultimately abandoned. The excavations have documented early colonial life.

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