(View exact match)OrdosSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Northern Zone
DEFINITION: The desert region in the northward loop of the Yellow River (Huang Ho) in northern China, the location of the Palaeolithic Ordos culture. From 8th century BC, the region was inhabited by seminomadic tribes, among them the Hsiung-Nu, threatening the Chou Dynasty and the Han Dynasty. Broad bronze daggers, curved knives, pole finials, harness ornaments, and animal-style bronze belt plaques are characteristic of the 1st millennium BC ('the Ordos bronzes'). The pictorial or narrative compositions common among these plaques, many including human figures, are typical also of Sarmatian metalwork. The distinctive metal culture of the Ordos reaches back as far as the latter part of the 2nd millennium BC, a date fixed by the discovery at Anyang of knives with animal-head pommels closely related to Ordos types. Owing to its position on the northern frontier of China, the Ordos was probably the main channel by which Chinese influences were transmitted to the steppes; it was also the route by which foreign elements reached China, especially during Eastern Chou and Han dynasties. An Upper Palaeolithic site (Sjara Osso Gol) yielded a microlithic industry. In the 1970s and '80s, Chinese scientists unearthed more than 20 human fossils from 30,000-60,000 years old at Hsiao-ch'iao-pan in the Sjara-Osso River valley. The terms Ordos man and Ordosian culture are applied to their findings. The area is now referred to as the Northern Zone.TordosSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Turdas
DEFINITION: A site on the Mures River in Transylvania, Rumania, with archaeological finds dating from the Middle Neolithic Age (3500-2600 BC). Its has given its name to the Transylvanian regional group of the Vinca culture and is often coupled with that of Vinca to describe a Middle Neolithic culture covering parts of Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Hungary. Tordos is the largest Vinca site in Rumania and has a collection of incised signs and a range of fired clay figurines.
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Baikal NeolithicCATEGORY: chronology; culture
DEFINITION: The Neolithic period of the Lake Baikal region in eastern Siberia. Stratified sites in the area show a long, gradual move from the Palaeolithic to Neolithic stage, starting in the 4th millennium BC. The Postglacial culture was not "true" Neolithic in that it farmed but Neolithic in the sense of using pottery. It was actually a Mongoloid hunting-and-fishing culture (except in southern Siberia around the Aral Sea) with a microlithic flint industry with polished-stone blade tools together with antler bone and ivory artifacts; pointed- or round-based pottery and the bow and arrow. Points and scrapers made on flakes of Mousterian aspect and pebble tools showing a survival of the ancient chopper-chopping tool tradition of eastern Asia have also been found. There was a woodworking and quartzite industry and some cattle breeding. The first bronzes of the region are related to the Shang period of northern China and the earliest Ordos bronzes. The area covers the mountainous regions from Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean and the taiga (coniferous forest) and tundra of northern Siberia. A first stage is name for the site Isakovo and is known only from a small number of burials in cemeteries. The succeeding Serovo stage is also known mainly from burials with the addition of the compound bow backed with bone plates. The third phase named Kitoi has burials with red ochre and composite fish hooks possibly indicate more fishing. The succeeding Glazkovo phase of the 2nd millennium BC saw the beginnings of metal-using but generally showed continuity in artifact and burial types. Some remains of semi-subterranean dwellings with centrally located hearths occur together with female statuettes in bone.LifanSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Li-fan
CATEGORY: site; culture
DEFINITION: Type site northwest of Chengdu, China, of a local culture of western Sichuan province. It was characterized by slate cist burials and grave goods suggests that the culture flourished in the late Eastern Chou and early Han periods. It seems to have wide-ranging contacts, including metropolitan China (western Han coins), the Xindian culture of Gansu (pottery shapes), the Ordos region (small animal bronzes), and perhaps even Western Asia (glass beads).Northern zoneCATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: Steppe region south of the Gobi desert along the northern edge of agricultural China, comprising Inner Mongolia, the Ordos, and southern Dongbei regions. This zone had several nomadic Bronze Age cultures during the 1st millennium BC.ShuidonggouSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Shui-tung-kou
DEFINITION: Late Palaeolithic site in Ningxia Hui, China, with blade artifacts and assigned to the Ordos culture.