CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a national monument on the coast of the Chukchi Sea with a horizontal stratigraphy covering the whole of north Alaskan prehistory. Located on 114 ridges along ancient beach lines, the monument's remarkable archaeological sites illustrate the cultural evolution of the Arctic people, dating back some 4,000 years and continuing to modern Eskimos. There are campsites of 10 successive cultures, beginning with the Denbigh Flint Complex, followed by the Old Whaling culture, then by the Eskimo cultures known as Trails Creek-Chloris, Chloris, Norton, Near Ipiutak, Ipiutak, Birnirk, Western Thule, and late prehistoric. On the terrace behind the beaches were two more phases (Palisades I and II) which go back to c 8000 BC. The stratigraphy is visible as a sequence of strips, roughly parallel to the shoreline, with the oldest, Denbigh, being furthest from the present-day shoreline. This horizontal sequence, in combination with the vertical stratigraphy of Onion Portage, forms the most reliable chronological framework in Western Arctic prehistory.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A small earthenware container used for liquids.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Novi Rusesti CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Neolithic and Eneolithicsite in Moldova, starting with the Linear Pottery culture and then the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Russe, Roussé, Sexantaprista, Roustchouk CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A city of northern Bulgaria, located on a major crossing-point of the Danube, which began as a fortified Roman harbor called Sexantaprista (Sixty Ships") in the 1st century BC. It was destroyed by barbarians in the 7th century. The Ottomans built a new town Roustchouk which subsequently bore the names Cherven and Roussé. It is the site of a large tell of the Karanovo V-VI group (4th millennium BC) where 11 Copper Age occupation levels have been uncovered. Interspersed between house levels were over 100 intramural burials."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Large settlement and cemeterysite of the Late Neolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye culture, in Moldavia, Rumania. The site has almost 100 complete house-plans on a promontory, enclosed on one side by a double ditch, and there were rich pottery assemblages of the Cucuteni A phase.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An early form of the Nortontradition of Western Arctic pre-history, dating to c 1500-500 BC. The type site is at Kotsebue Sound. Cape Krusentern, Point Barrow, and Onion Portage are other Arctic sites with the characteristic coarse stamped pottery. Tool assemblages are diverse with some of polished slate. Oil lamps first appear in Choris times.
Denbigh Flint complex
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An Arctic Small ToolTraditionflintindustry found at Cape Denbigh, Iyatayet, Cape Krusenstern, Onion Portage, and other Alaskan sites. The typical artifacts are finely workedmicroblade tools (bladelets, small crescents), burins, and bifacially pressure-flaked points. The Denbigh complex had developed by c 3200 BC. The Arctic Small tooltradition spread eastwards over the whole Arctic zone from Alaska to Greenland and contributed to the earliest Eskimo cultures. Land mammals seem to have been the primary focus of subsistenceactivity.
CATEGORY: fauna; artifact DEFINITION: Material from enlarged teeth (or tusk) of certain mammals and used for various tools and artifacts from the Upper Palaeolithic. The tusks of elephants, mammoths, and walruses have been prized throughout prehistory and history.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Important site in northwest Alaska containing one of the continent's longest stratigraphies; occupied from at least 8500 BP by a number of Eskimo-Siberian-Indian subcultures (American Palaeoarctic, Northern Archaic, Arctic Small Tool Traditions, Inuit cultures). The oldest industries, called Akmak and Kobuk, are thought to last from c 9000 BC until the mid-7th millennium BC, and include chipped tools (blades, bifaces and associated cores) which are closer to Siberian types than to those of temperate America. The Kobuk (6200-6000 BC) contained similar tools but of limited variety. After a long hiatus in occupation, the Palisades II industry (4850-3350 BC, variously 4000-2000 BC) shows links with the archaic cultures of the forest zone to the southeast, as does the succeeding Portage complex (3350-3000 BC, variously 2600-2200 BC). Next came tools of the Denbigh Flint Complex (3200 BC, variously 2200-1800 BC), followed by Chloris (1500-500 BC) with the oldest pottery in the Arctic, then a local version (Norton) of Ipiutak (400-800 AD), by a forest-adapted Indian culture called Itkillik Complex (500-1000 AD), and finally by an Arctic Woodland Culturefacies of the Thule Tradition. The excellent vertical stratigraphy of this site makes it the major reference for all western Arctic chronologies, especially when taken together with the horizontal stratigraphy of Cape Krusenstern.