SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Saale Glacial Stage, Saalian cold stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A division of Pleistocene deposits and time in northern Europe which followed the Holstein Interglacial Stage and preceded the Eemian Interglacial Stage. It was the penultimate cold stage in northern Europe, c 200,000-125,000 BP. The extensive and complexSaale deposits are correlated with the Wolstonian (or Gipping) GlacialStage of Britain and the Riss GlacialStage of the European Alpine region. The Saale is roughly contemporaneous with the IllinoianGlacialStage of North America. The Saale has three complex phases: the Drente, Treene, and Warthe substages. The Drente and Warthe represent periods of glacial advance, or maxima, whereas the Treene represents an interstadialperiod of glacial retreat between the early Drente and the late Warthe. In the region of central Europe, the Saale is represented by three glacial maxima separated by two periods, or interstadials, of moderating climatic conditions. One of the main features is a complexseries of end-moraines, demarcating the maximum extent of ice sheets. These ice sheets flowed out from centers in Scandinavia, across the Baltic Sea and into northern Europe and Russia. The end-moraines are split into two sets: one called the Drenthe moraines (or Dnieper), and the Warthe moraines (Moscow in the USSR). These formations are complex and each seems to represent several 'pulses' of the ice-sheet edge. The SaaleGlacialStage was named for the German river, a tributary of the Elbe.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Holsteinian Interglacial CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: North European Middle Pleistocene warm phase occurring between the Elsterian and Saalian cold stages, c 300,000-200,000 BP. These deposits are stratified above Elster Glacial deposits and are overlain by Saaleglacial deposits. The Alpine equivalent is the Mindel-Riss and the North American equivalent is the Yarmouth. In Britain, it was the Hoxnian.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A glacialstage of the Quaternary in North America, followed by the Sangamon Interglacial and following the Yarmouth. The Illinoian ice sheet covered a small area of southeastern and extreme eastern Iowa, and in so doing it diverted the Mississippi River and created a valley along its western front that can still be seen. It consists mainly of tills, the products of large ice-sheets, and has been split up into three sub-stages, the Liman, Monican, and Jubileean. It is unclear how many cold stages the Illinoian deposits represent, but it may be more than one. The IllinoianGlacialStage ended with a cool, moist period that gradually became drier and then warmer. The Illinoian has never been dated satisfactorily but it is roughly contemporary with the Riss and SaaleGlacial Periods.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Lower Palaeolithic site outside Leipzig, Germany, where gravel pits have gravels earlier than the Saale ice maximum advance in the region. They contain a cold-indicating fauna of early penultimate glacial date and numerous stone artifacts, especially Levallois flakes, sidescrapers, and handaxes. Artifacts and faunal remains are buried in the riverine gravels, probably deposited during the late Middle Pleistocene.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite on the Saale River, eastern Germany, dated to 12,542-11,750 bp. There are backed blades, endscrapers, burins, bone points, and Venus figurines. The assemblage is assigned to the Magdalenian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Riss Glacial Stage CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: The third major glaciation of the Pleistocene in Alpine Europe; the penultimate Alpine glacial advance. It started 250,000 years ago and lasted over 100,000 years. The Riss, during which mountain glaciers descended from the highlands, followed the Mindel-Riss Interglacial Stage and preceded the Riss-Würm Interglacial Stage, both periods of relatively moderate climatic conditions. The Riss is correlated with the Gipping Glacial Stage of Great Britain and the SaaleGlacial Stage of northern Europe. Like the Saale, the Riss Glacial Stage included two major phases of ice advance separated by a period of more moderate conditions. The Riss Glacial Stage is roughly contemporaneous with the IllinoianGlacial Stage of North America.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: spondylus CATEGORY: fauna DEFINITION: Mediterranean mussel shell from which ornaments (bracelets, beads, disks) were made, found all across the Balkans, up the Danube Valley, and even on the Saale and the Main. It was traded for this purpose into central Europe in the Early Neolithic. Spondylus shell ornaments occurred in contexts of the First Temperate Neolithic and Linear Pottery culture (Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Netherlands).