CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A scraper with a shape or structure resembling a dome
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: endscraper, grattoir CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A stone tool formed by chipping the end of a flake of stone which can then be used to scrape animal hides and wood. Its steeply angled (acute) working edge was used for flensing or softening hides and to dress skins. It appeared in Europe during the Upper Palaeolithicperiod. It differed from side scrapers in that it had a rounded retouched end and was often made on a blade. A side scraper had a retouched working edge along the long edge of the flake.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A scraping implement for making flakes
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A tool made out of bone or stone used for removing the flesh from an animal hide
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: end scraper CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Narrow blade tool with a convex working edge at one or both ends.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: side scraper, end scraper, sidescraper, endscraper CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A retouched flake tool with a thick working edge; a flake tool that has been sharpened on one edge and left blunt on other edges to allow grasping, probably used to scrape (dress) animal hides. It is called a side scraper (racloir) or end scraper (grattoir) depending on the sharpened edge; side scrapers utilize the long side and end scrapers have the scraping facet on one end. Thumbnail" scrapers are very small; some cultures used scrapers as big as a fist. Scrapers were also used in woodworking and in shapingbone or ivory. Other types were snub-nosed round / horseshoe. Side scrapers are typical of the Middle Palaeolithic while end scrapers are typical of the later Palaeolithic."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sidescraper, scraper, racloir CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A retouched flake tool with a thick working edge; a flake tool that has been sharpened on one edge and left blunt on other edges to allow grasping, probably used to scrape (dress) animal hides and for working hard materials. It is called a side scraper (racloir) because its sharpened edge is the long side.
strangulated blade scraper
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Long blade tool with a retouched notch on one or both sides. Possibly used as a wood-working tool like a modern spokeshave. Characteristic of the AURIGNACIAN.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A small convexscraper the size and shape of a thumbnail, found in both Pleistocene and Holocene contexts in Australia. Finely worked examples are part of the Australian Small Tool Tradition. Increasingly reported from Pleistocene sites and distinctive feature of southwestern Tasmanian Pleistocene and Victoria assemblages from about 24,000 years ago.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithic sites of a culture located in south-central Siberia of c 20,000-10,000 BP. Artifacts include wedge-shaped microcores, microblades, and scrapers. Reindeer, woolly mammoth, and arctic fox were common.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A Palaeoindiansite of Wyoming with evidence of the killing and butchering of animals. Artifacts include a distinctive point, scrapers, and eyed bone needles. The complex dates to 10,500-10,000 BP.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithicsite on the Danube River in Austria with artifacts (endscrapers, backed blades, retouched blades) and faunal remains (woolly mammoth, reindeer, giant deer) dating to 25,700-22,450 bp, the Early Gravettian.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A stoneindustry of southernmost Africa, dated between the 11th and 6th millennia BC. It precedes the appearance of backed-microlithWiltonindustry and its assemblages, Boomplass and Robberg being the most notable, contain flake scrapers. Some archaeologists have grouped this industry under the name Oakhurst Complex as there are possible related and contemporary industries as far as southern Namibia and Zimbabwe. The appearance of the Albany industry coincides with the post-Pleistocene rise in sea level and there is evidence that marine food was increasingly exploited by the culture.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Lower Palaeolithic site in Soria, central Spain, first discovered before World War II. Ambrona probably dates 300,000-400,000 years ago, from the end of the Mindel glacialperiod. Its occupants hunted elephants, deer, and bovines though the horse was the most common animal in the area. There are stone hand axes, scrapers, and cleavers of the Acheuliantype and similar to some African sites were made from chalcedony, quartzite, quartz, and limestone. Points were fashioned from young elephant tusks. Pieces of charcoal show that fire was used.
Apollo 11 Cave
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave in southern Namibia near the confluence of the Orange and Great Fish Rivers which has a long sequence of industries dating from the Middle Stone Age. There is a series of detached rock slabs with rock paintings dating between 28,450-26,350 years old, among the oldest dated paintings in the world and the oldest dated rock art of southern Africa. Later horizons in the Apollo 11 Cave show a scraper-based industry in the 13th-8th millennia BC that is related to the Albany industry of southern Cape Province. Microlithic findings begin in the 8th millennium.
Arctic Small Tool tradition
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The first coastal dwellers of the true Arctic regions who appeared before 2200 BC and who had a hunting tradition and a distinctive set of stone tools, weapon tips, and adzes of small size (hence the name). Their sites stretched from the Bering Sea across the north Canadian coast as far east as northernmost Greenland, though there is no evidence of sleds or boats. Within a century or two of 2000 BC, they also expanded southward in Alaska to the Alaska Peninsula and south along the northeastern American coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Denbigh Flint Complex (or Arctic Denbigh culture, named for the type site Cape Denbigh, Alaska) is the characteristic toolassemblage. It included small chipped stone artifacts derived from Neolithic eastern Siberia -- such as blades, microblades, burins, scrapers, large bifacial projectile points. There was no pottery and the economics were balanced between products of the land (caribou, lake and river fish, musk ox) and sea mammals. Approximate dates range from 4000-1000 BC and this tradition is thought to be associated with ancestral Eskimo. In Canada and Greenland, the Small Tool people gradually developed into the Dorsetculture. In Alaska, the Small Tool people disappeared and were replaced by 400 BC by people of the Nortonculture who used Siberian-type pottery.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithic cave site in northeast Hungary dating to 18,600-17,000 bp. The artifacts include endscrapers, burins, and retouched blades of the Gravettian and there are some faunal remains.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A stone tool culture of the Middle and Late Palaeolithic, widespread in the late Pleistocene in northern Africa. Centered on the Atlas Mountains, but with extensions into Libya and deep into the Sahara, the Aterian people were among the first to use the bow and arrow. It appears to have developed, perhaps initially in the Maghreb of Algeria and Morocco, from the local Mousteriantradition. Aterian assemblages, named after Bir el Ater in Tunisia, are marked by the presence of varied flake tools, many of which possess a marked tang. Some tools (such as side scrapers and Levallois flakes) resemble Mousterian types, but the tanged points and bifacially worked leaf-shaped points appear distinctively Aterian. The leaf-shaped blades, however, have been likened to Solutrean blades and it has often been suggested that the Aterians may have entered the Iberian Peninsula during Solutrean times. The date at which the Aterian first appeared is not well attested, but may have been c 80,000 BC. The Aterian occupation came to an end c 35,000 BC as the Sahara became drier and unsuitable for human settlement.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Aurignac (adj) CATEGORY: culture; chronology DEFINITION: A series of Upper Palaeolithic cultures in Europe that existed from about 35,000 to 20,000 years (dates also given as 38,000-22,000 years) ago. They were characterized by their use of stone (flint) and bone tools, refinement of those tools, and the development of sculpture and cave painting. The culture is named for the type site Aurignac, in southern France, where such artifacts were discovered. In France it is stratified between the Châtelperronian and the Gravettian (and before the Solutrean and the Magdalenian), but industries of Aurignacian type are also found eastwards to the Balkans, Palestine, Iran, and Afghanistan. At Abri Pataud there is a radiocarbon date of pre-31,000 BC for the Aurignacian, but there are possibly earlier occurrences in central and southeast Europe (Istállóskö in Hungary, Bacho Kiro in Bulgaria). There is still considerable dispute about the extent to which the Aurignacian is contemporary with the cultures of the Perigordian group in southwest France. The sites are often in deep, sheltered valleys. Split-based bone points, carinates (steep-end scrapers), and Aurignac blades (with heavy marginalretouch) are typical of Aurignacian. Aurignacian is also important as the most distinctive and abundantly represented of the early Upper Palaeolithic groups.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mesolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic) culture of southwest France and northern Spain, which seems to follow the Late Magdalenian of the area. It falls within the Late Glacial Period and may be correlated with the Allerod oscillation of the 10th millennium BC (c 9000 to 8000 BC). The culture was characterized by flint microliths, pebbles painted with schematic designs, small thumb-scrapers, fish hooks, and flat boneantler harpoons. It is named for Le Mas d'Zail, a massive cave region in southern France where such artifacts were first discovered in 1889. The Azilians were food gatherers who had domesticated the dog. The Oban and Oransay cultures are degenerated Azilian.
CATEGORY: chronology; culture DEFINITION: The Neolithicperiod of the Lake Baikal region in eastern Siberia. Stratified sites in the area show a long, gradual move from the Palaeolithic to Neolithicstage, starting in the 4th millennium BC. The Postglacial culture was not true" Neolithic in that it farmed but Neolithic in the sense of using pottery. It was actually a Mongoloid hunting-and-fishingculture (except in southern Siberia around the Aral Sea) with a microlithic flintindustry with polished-stoneblade tools together with antlerbone and ivory artifacts; pointed- or round-based pottery and the bow and arrow. Points and scrapers made on flakes of Mousterianaspect and pebble tools showing a survival of the ancient chopper-chopping tooltradition of eastern Asia have also been found. There was a woodworking and quartziteindustry and some cattle breeding. The first bronzes of the region are related to the Shangperiod of northern China and the earliest Ordos bronzes. The area covers the mountainous regions from Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean and the taiga (coniferous forest) and tundra of northern Siberia. A first stage is name for the site Isakovo and is known only from a small number of burials in cemeteries. The succeeding Serovo stage is also known mainly from burials with the addition of the compound bow backed with bone plates. The third phase named Kitoi has burials with red ochre and composite fish hooks possibly indicate more fishing. The succeeding Glazkovo phase of the 2nd millennium BC saw the beginnings of metal-using but generally showed continuity in artifact and burial types. Some remains of semi-subterranean dwellings with centrally located hearths occur together with female statuettes in bone."
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A large cave of southwestern Zimbabwe, where excavations have revealed a long sequence of occupation over the past 50,000 years. The site gives its name to a stoneindustry and potterytype, but they are widely separated periods. There are rock paintings on the cave walls and sheep bones, found in the same archaeological levels as pottery, have been dated to 150 BC. The Bambata industry, dated between the 50th-20th millennia BC, used prepared cores to produce (unretouched) flakes for scrapers and slender unifacial or bifacial lances or spear points. Its distribution extended north to Zambia and south to the Orange Free State and perhaps the Cape. Bambata potteryware is known only from contexts of the 1st millennium ad in Zimbabwe. It is elaborately decorated with stamped designs.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in the Central African Republic with a large Neolithictoolassemblage of flakes, sidescrapers, flaked axes, and elaborately decorated pottery.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Acheuliansite in Golan Heights, Israel, which yielded waste flakes, a few bifaces, Levallois flakes, and sidescrapers.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: bifacial; handaxe; coup-de-poing CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A type of prehistoric stone tool flaked on both faces or sides, the main tool of Homo erectus. The technique was typical of the hand-ax tradition of the Lower Paleolithicperiod and the Acheulian cultures. Biface may be oval, triangular, or almond-shaped in form and characterized by axial symmetry, even if marks made by use are more plentiful on one face or on one edge. The cutting edge could be straight or jagged and the tool used as a pick, knife, scraper, or even weapon. Only in the most primitive tools was flaking done to one side only.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A point that abruptly terminates part way up the blade with no true distalpoint for piercing. Typically the point is chipped in a mild excurvate or straight edge. Some feel that the point may have been used in hunting as a stunning" weapon. However most blunts show signs as being a conserved former projectile reworked into a hand held or hafted scraper."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Palaeolithicsite in Moravia, Czechoslovakia. There are artifacts -- sidescrapers, denticulates, burins, and laurel-leaf points -- and some faunal remains that date to the early cold maximum of the last glacial.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A late Middle Palaeolithicculture of Moravia, Czechoslovakia, with artifacts including sidescrapers, endscrapers, bifacial foliates, denticulates, burins, and laurel-leaf points.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A blunted projectile point intended to stun rather than to inflect a bleeding wound; sometimes difficult to distinguished from hafted scrapers
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: non-tula adze, flake scraper CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A term sometimes used by Australian archaeologists for flake scrapers, hafted for woodworking, which are not Tula adzes
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: burin adze, non-tula adze, flake scraper CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A term sometimes used by Australian archaeologists for flake scrapers, hafted for woodworking, which are not Tula adzes
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter on the southeast coast of New South Wales, Australia, with deposits dated to the Pleistocene c 18,000 BC. Stone artifacts included flake scrapers and dentated saws. Around 3000 BC, Bondi points and other tools of the Australian Small Tool Tradition appeared.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A prehistoric cave site near Brno, Czechoslovakia, with artifacts and faunal remains of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic and the Hallstatt (Early Iron Age). There are sidescrapers and burins, numerous bronze objects, inhumation burials and cremated bones. Several burials included wagons with iron tires, likely to have been high-status people.
CATEGORY: culture; site DEFINITION: An assemblage of artifacts including choppers, scrapers, leaf points, and other tools from the surface of the high terraces in Rio Pedregal, Venezuela. Dating indicates the site may have been inhabited 15,000 years ago.
Capsian and Capsian Neolithic
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Capsian industry CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mesolithic/Stone Age (8000 BC-2700 BC) cultural complex prominent in inland northern Africa near the present border between Tunisia and Algeria. Its shell midden sites are in the area of the great salt lakes of what is now southern Tunisia, the type site being Jabal al-Maqta'. The tool kit of the Capsian is a classic example of the industries of the late Würm Glacial Period and it is apparently related to the Gravettianstage of Europe's Perigordian industry (which dates from about 17,000 years ago). However, it occurs in Neothermal (postglacial) times and, like its predecessor, the Ibero-Maurusian industry (Oranianindustry), the Capsian was a microlithic tool complex. It differed from the Ibero-Maurusian, however, in having a far more varied tool kit with large backed blades, scrapers, backed bladelets, microburins, and burins in its earlier phase and a gradual development of geometric microliths later. These became its leading feature by the 6th millennium BC. Shortly after 5000 BC, pottery and domesticated animals were introduced. Some North African rock paintings are attributed to people of the Capsian industry. The Capsian Neolithic, with pointed-basepottery and a stoneindustry, lasted from c 6200-5300 BP, in the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and the northern Sahara. The name derives from Capsa, the Latin form of Gafsa, a town in south central Tunisia where such artifacts were first discovered. Hunting and snail-collecting seem to have formed the basis of the economy. Human remains from Capsian sites are mostly of Mechta-Afalou type.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithicsite in eastern Romania with artifacts of bifacial foliates, sidescrapers, and endscrapers. Upper levels of backed blades are from the Gravettian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Proto-Stillbay, Charama CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A stoneindustry of Zimbabwe and parts of southern and central Zambia where it was the local successor of the Sangoan. Many Charaman assemblages come from surface or river-gravel occurrences, as at Victoria Falls. There are many scrapers, sub-triangular points, and other flake tools. Charaman deposits have been found in cave sites, such as Broken Hill, which yielded the remains of Homo sapiens rhodesiensis.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The second of three chronological stages of the Cochiseculture in southern Arizona and New Mexico, with dates clustering between 4000-500 BC. The appearance of distinctive, side-notched projectile points indicates an interest in hunting though a mixed food-gathering economy is indicated by assemblages commonly including cobble manos, shallow basin grinding slabs, choppers, and scrapers. There were large base camps, storage pits, and outlying specialized-activity camps that show some permanence. There is evidence from Bat Cave in New Mexico of the cultivation of primitive maize.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave sites in the Crimea, Ukraine. One had three occupation levels associated with woolly mammoth, steppebison, and wild ass and the artifacts were sidescrapers and bifacial foliates. The other cave had wild ass, sidescrapers, and some mobiliary art.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An early flake-toolculture of Europe, dating from the early Mindel-Riss (Great Interglacial) of the Pleistocene epoch, which occurred from 1,600,000 to 10,000 years ago. It was named after discoveries at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, England. A kind of concavescraper, perhaps used to smooth and shape wooden spears, is typical of the Clactonianindustry. Apart from the tip of a wooden spear, the artifacts consisted of trimmed flint flakes and chipped pebbles, some of which can be classified as chopper tools. Handaxes were absent. The Clactonian seems therefore to have coexisted with Early Acheulian. Some believe that the two industries are quite distinct, while others maintain that both assemblages might have been made by the same people, and that the Clactonian could in theory be an Acheulianindustry from which handaxes were absent because such tools were not needed for the jobs carried out at a particular site. Clactonian and related industries are distributed throughout the north European plain, and Clactonian tools are similar in appearance to those produced in the Soanindustry of Pakistan and in several sites in eastern and southern Africa. The Tayacianindustry of France and Israel is believed to be a smaller edition of the Clactonian.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A limestone cave in northeastern Victoria, Australia, with human occupation deposits dating from c 16,000-7000 BC. Ochre and hearths as well as stone tools of the Australian Core Tool and Scraper Tradition have been found and the tools resemble similar Tasmanian artifacts. Bones of extinct animals found in deposits which are more than 20,000 years old and are separate from the human deposits. Australian Small Tool Tradition artifacts were excavated from late Holocene deposits in a rock shelter outside the main cave.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An ancient North American Indian culture that existed 9,000-2,000 years ago, in Arizona and western New Mexico. The culture was named for the ancient Lake Cochise (now Willcox Playa, Arizona), near which important finds were made. The Cochise, a local variant of the Desert Culture, contrasted with the Big-Game Hunting cultures to the east (Clovis, Folsom), and was based on the gathering and collecting wild plant foods. In later stages, there is evidence of the development of agriculture. The Cochiseculture has been divided into three developmental periods. The earliest stage, Sulphur Spring, dates from 6000 or 7000 BC to about 4000 BC and is characterized by milling stones for grinding wild seeds and by various scrapers, but no knives, blades, or projectile points. Its type site has been associated with mammoth and extinct horse remains and there are some indications that hunting was done. During the second stage, Chiricahua, lasting from 4000 to perhaps 500 BC, the appearance of projectile points seems to indicate an increased interest in hunting, and the remains of a primitive form of maize in Bat Cave (NM) suggest the beginnings of farming. In the final or San Pedro stage, from 500 BC to the beginning of the Christian era, milling stones were replaced by mortars and pestles (mano and metate), and pit houses (houses of poles and earth built over pits) appeared. During the San Pedro stage, pottery appeared in the area of the Mogollon Indians. The poorly understood Cazador phase may bridge the long hiatus between Sulphur Springs and Chiricahua, but the evidence so far in inconclusive.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: nucleus CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A piece of stone used as a blank from which flakes or blades were removed by prehistoric toolmakers. Usually it was the by-product of toolmaking, but it may also have been shaped and modified to serve as an implement in its own right. An object, such as a hand-ax, chopper, or scraper made in this way is a core tool. Cores were most often produced when hit by a pebble, antler, or bone hammer.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: core, core-tool CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A stone tool, such as a hand-ax, chopper, or scraper, formed by chipping away flakes from a core. These tools, often large and relatively heavy, were characteristic of Paleolithic the culture. They were made by using a pebble, antler, or bone hammer.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An early blade-and-burinindustry of Cyrenaica, Libya, dating to 40,000-14,000 years ago. It is thought to be the oldest dated blade-and-burinindustry of Upper Palaeolithictype and is recorded from only two sites: Hagfed ed-Dabba and the Haua Fteah. The Dabban is clearly related in some way to the broadly contemporary Upper Palaeolithiccomplex of Europe and the Near East with backed blades, burins, and endscrapers being its most characteristic artifacts. Its origins are still unknown. Dabban occupation of Haua Fteah continued until c12,000 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Denali complex CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A prehistoricculture or complex of central Alaska (the Tangle Lakes) dating to c 10,500-7000 BC. Similar to the Siberian Dyuktai (Diuktai) culture and defined by H. West in 1967, it is characterized by wedge-shaped microcores, microblades, burins, and bifacial points, scrapers on flakes, and large blades.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A limestone cave near the southwest coast of Western Australia, containing deep, well-preserved organic and stone deposits dating from 27,000-10,000 BC. It is one of the longest occupation sequences in Australia, with well-defined hearths and occupation floors and a rich faunal assemblage. The stoneassemblage included cores, scrapers, denticulate flakes, retouched flakes, and adze flakes of chert or quartz. Undersea-drill cores from the nearby continental shelf have produced the same Eocenechert from a zone which would have been exposed during Pleistocene low sea-levels. Three unifacially incised limestone plaques (10,000-18,400 BC) and a piece of artificially perforated marl have been interpreted as ritual items or adornments. Bone tool artifacts included points dating to c 27,000 BC and beads of macropod (kangaroo/wallaby) fibulae between 13,000-10,000 BC, claimed to be the oldest known ornaments in Australia.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Eibian CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A stoneindustry found exclusively in the southern and eastern areas of Somalia and northeastern Kenya in East Africa. Doian assemblages contain pressure-flaked small points, backed microliths, and flake scrapers. A post-Pleistocene age is possible but not yet determined.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithic camping site in southern Moravia of the mammoth hunters of loess country. Excavation has revealed various phases of occupation, represented by houses, hearths, flint tools (burins, scrapers, backed blades), ornaments of mammothivory, animal figurines of baked clay, Venus figurines, faunal and human remains. The main occupation level dates from 25,000 BP, the beginning of the last glacial maximum (the end of an interstadialperiod). The culture has been called Pavlovian or eastern Gravettian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Dorset tradition CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A prehistoricEskimoculture that settled in the eastern Canadian Arctic and Greenland around 1000 BC and lasted until 1000 AD when it was replaced by the Thuleculture. The earliest manifestation, known as pre-Dorset (in some areas as Sarqaq) is represented at sites on Baffin Island and dates from c 2400 BC. The Dorset subtradition developed from pre-Eskimo Arctic Small Tool tradition. A typical site of the late Dorset subtradition is Port aux Choix 2 in western Newfoundland with house and storage pits. They hunted sea mammals and caribou. The tradition had a stone tool assemblage of end scrapers and spear points and they were also known for beautiful carvings of animals and humans in bone, ivory, and wood.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Palaeolithic and Mesolithicsite on the Tolchei River in south-central Siberia. Artifacts -- Levallois cores, denticulates, and scrapers -- are found with sheep and other mammal remains. It was the northernmost Middle Palaeolithicsite in Asia.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave in the Greater Caucasus of Georgia with two main cultural layers. Tools are scrapers and points and the newer assemblage has Levallois technique tools and blades.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kenya Capsian, Kenya Aurignacian CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An East African obsidianindustry of the central Rift Valley, Kenya, previously known as the 'Kenya Capsian' and before that as the 'Kenya Aurignacian'. Its time span is the 13th-8th millennia BC. The assemblages, as recovered from Gamble's Cave and Nderit Drift, comprise large backed blades, crescentric microliths, burins, and end-scrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Pleistocenesite in eastern Germany near Weimar. A badly broken skull and other human remains have been found with stone tools resembling the Mousterian. The fossil man is of generalized Neanderthal type and the artifacts include scrapers, points, and bifaces which were typical of the Middle Palaeolithic. Often ascribed to the last interglacial (about 120,000 years ago), the remains have also been dated by the uranium series method to about 225,000 years ago.
CATEGORY: culture; site DEFINITION: A series of sites on the central coastline of Peru, including Chilca, which constitute a cultural phase which began to exploit maritime resources and cultivation, c 3750-2500 BC. Stone artifacts include milling stones, small percussion-flaked projectile points, and simple scrapers as well as bone and wooden tools. The changing subsistence patterns resulted from the decreasing availability of lomas vegetation.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle PalaeolithicMousteriansite in Hungary. The faunal remains suggest that it was occupied prior to the last glacial and the tools are mainly scrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Palaeolithicsite in Armenia with occupations during cool climatic conditions. Artifacts include sidescrapers and faunal remains are from rhinoceros, horse, elk, and red deer.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: flake tool CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A thin broad piece of stone detached from a larger mass for use as a tool; a piece of stone removed from a larger piece (core or nucleus) during knapping (percussion or pressure) and used in prehistoric times as a cutting instrument. Flakes often served as blanks" from which more complex artifacts -- burins scrapers gravers arrowheads etc. -- could be made. Waste flakes (débitage) are those discarded during the manufacture of a tool. Flakes may be retouched to make a flake tool or used unmodified. The process leaves characteristic marks on both the core and flake. This makes it comparatively easy to distinguish human workmanship from natural accident."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A small rock shelter near Axum in northern Ethiopia which has yielded a stratified sequence covering the last 12,000 years. The earliest occurrence was of large blades, followed c 8000 BC by an industry dominated by backed microliths. Pottery first appeared at a level tentatively dated to the 3rd millennium BC. The seeds of cultivated finger millet (Eleusine coracana) are dated to between 7000-5000 years ago. This find, if correctly associated with these dates, would be the earliest-known evidence for an indigenous African crop. The latest stoneindustry was a specialized one of small steep scrapers.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An early Upper Palaeolithicculture of the Kostenki-Borshchevo sites in European Russia with assemblages c 30,000-25,000 bp. The artifacts include endscrapers and Middle Palaeolithic sidescrapers as well as bone tools.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: end scraper CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A flaked stone scraping tool, usually flint, in which the working edge is at the end of the blade or flake and lies across its long axis. It is characteristic of the Upper Paleolithic and was probably used to work wood and clean hides; from the French gratter 'scratch, scrape'.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Late Upper Palaeolithicculture of north Germany and the Low Countries, contemporary with the Magdalenian of France, c 13,000-11,750 BP. It was the culture of the first people to colonize north Germany and the Low Countries after the final retreat of the Pleistocene ice sheets had made the area available for settlement. The Hamburgians may have been the descendants of Eastern Gravettian or peripheral Magdalenian groups. They were reindeer hunters whose tools are small, single-shouldered points, harpoons, endscrapers, microburins, and 'zinken' (small beaked borers used for working antler).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hoabinh CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A little-known Mesolithic or Neolithicculture (early-to-mid-Holocene stone tool industry) of southeast Asia (type site is Hoa Binh, Vietnam) dating from 10,000-2000 BC. There are many chipped, pecked, and polished stone axes found in piles of shells. Its importance lies in its position between the earliest centers of rice growing in India and China, and in the part it most have played in diffusing the knowledge of agriculture into Indonesia and the Pacific. The Neolithic assemblages have pottery and ground stone tools for several millennia after 6000 BC. It is best described as a techno-complex with successive cultural accretions, the Hoabinhian cannot be regarded as an archaeological culture of chronological horizon. The majority of Hoabinhian sites found to date are in rock shelters and coastal shell middens. The three recognized phases are: archaic with unifacially workedpebble tools, intermediate with smaller pebble tools and bifacial working and edge-grinding, and late characterized by some pottery, smaller scrapers, grinding stones, knives, piercers, polished stone tools, and shell artifacts.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A steep-edged, often large, domed core with flat based striking platforms, heavily step-flanked around their margins. Both very large and smaller varieties are found commonly on Pleistocene sites in most areas of Australia and on some mid-Holocene sites and they are considered characteristic of the Australian CoreTool and Scraper tradition. They were chopping tools mainly used in wood-working. The step-flaking could have resulted from repeated striking to remove flakes.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A steep-edged, often large, domed core with flat based striking platforms, heavily step-flanked around their margins. Both very large and smaller varieties are found commonly on Pleistocene sites in most areas of Australia and on some mid-Holocene sites and they are considered characteristic of the Australian CoreTool and Scraper tradition. They were chopping tools mainly used in wood-working. The step-flaking could have resulted from repeated striking to remove flakes.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Palaeolithicsite in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, with many cultural strata providing the stone tool chronology for the Kantoregion. Tools, mostly of chert, were recovered from 13+ layers and choppers, scrapers, and flakes in the lowest layers are 40-50,000 bp according to radiocarbon and fission track ages of pumice beds between the layers. Blades and bifacial points in the top layers date to between 21,000-10,000 years ago. The dates are considerably older than most of the Japanese Palaeolithic sites, lending support to the idea that the archipelago was occupied in the Middle Pleistocene.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A lithictradition of southeastern Brazil, dated to the 5th millennium BC and continuing into the Christian era. The earliest artifacts are rough unifacial flakes and some bifacialboomerang shapes, flake knives, choppers, and scrapers -- all for hunting. Bifacial projectile points begin to appear more in the 3rd millennium BC and semi-polished axes and grooved bola stones were added in c 2000-1000 BC. The complex had no pottery.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Palaeolithicsite in the northern Caucasus, Russia. There are numerous occupation horizons with remains of steppebison and sidescraper artifacts.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A sandstone rock shelter in the Australian Northern Territory known for two well-separated stone industries and for art. The upper levels date 3000 bp and contained a Australian Core Tool assemblage with points and tula adze flakes. The unifacial points included some with denticulated margins and others classed as Pirri points. Rock paintings include Wandjina style mythical beings, animals, men on horseback, and revolvers. Fragments of Panaramitee-style engravings were found in layers dated 5000-3000 BC. Following a sterile layer, the lower layers contained large flake scrapers, horsehoof cores, and engraved sandstone fragments of 7000-5000 bp.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The first Palaeolithicsite discovered in Japan, with layers dating to 20,000 and 15,000 years old. Excavation there provided the first convincing evidence that the Japanese islands were occupied by man during Palaeolithic times. Among the finds are elongate blades, choppers, and scrapers in the oldest layer and thin small blades in the second. Other crude 'tools' estimated to be over 50,000 years old have been found.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A group of stone assemblages with heavy core tools found on Kangaroo Island and the nearby peninsulas of South Australia, a variant of the Australian CoreTool and Scraper Tradition. Kangaroo Island, now separated from Australia by a 15-km strait, was joined to the mainland during the Pleistocene. There were no Aboriginal inhabitants at the time of European contact. Radiocarbon estimates of 14,000 BC have been obtained for a possibly subsequent small scraperindustry in Seton rock shelter on Kangaroo Island. Kartan tools include unifacially flaked pebble choppers, large steep-edged flake scrapers, waisted ax blades, and large horsehoof cores (mean weights of 500 grams), sometimes associated with small quartz flakes. The proportion of core tools in the assemblage is much higher than in other Pleistocene sites.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A sandstone rock shelter in south central Queensland, Australia, one of the oldest sites yet discovered in the continent and containing one of the longest and most complete technological sequences for any Australian site. The basal strata contain an industry of core and flake scrapers dated by radiocarbon to c 14,000-13,000 BC. These tools were later joined by small blades, microliths, delicate points, woodworking flakes, and (around 2400 BC) by backed blades. Stone tools from the base to the 3000 BC levels also included steep-edgeflake scrapers and cores, including horsehoof cores. Between 3000-500 BC, there occurred an unusually wide range of Australian Small Tools, including Pirri points, geometric microliths, Bondi points, and Tulaadze flakes, as well as grinding stones. Ochre pellets, some use-striated, were scattered through all levels. There is stenciled art going back 19,000 years. It was the first evidence of Pleistocene occupation in Australia, establishing the two-phasesequence in current use for the continent.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite on the Dnestr River, Ukraine, dating to an interstadial preceding the early cold maximum of the last Glacial. There are sidescrapers and denticulates among the tools.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kiik-Koba CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Palaeolithic cave site in the Crimea, Ukraine, occupied in Mousterian times. Some Neanderthal remains have been found, including foot bones and hand bones, but no complete skulls were recovered. Evidence of cold climatic conditions and artifacts such as sidescrapers and bifacial foliates have been found.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A series of Palaeolithic sites on the Louros River in northern Greece. There are artifacts dating to the early Last Glacial, Middle Palaeolithic artifacts including Levallois cores, sidescrapers, and bifacial foliates. A surface collection of Mousterian types has also been found.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Six Upper Palaeolithic sites on the Yenisei River in southern Siberia. Radiocarbon dates put Kokorevo I-IV between 15,900-12940 bp. There are wedge-shaped microcores, microblades, sidescrapers, and retouched blades. Level I is Kokorevoculture, II and III are Afontovaculture. The Kokorevoculture is dated to c 20,000-10,000 BP and included endscrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite north of Zagreb, Croatia, dating to around the Last Interglacial. The industry was dominated by sidescrapers. Over 650 skeletal fragments of archaic Homo sapiens have been found. These comprise the skeletal fossils of at least 13 adults and children and are estimated to derive from the early last glacialperiod, about 40,000 to 75,000 years ago. They are identified as being transitional from Neanderthal to modern man. The evidence suggests cannibalism or funerary ritual.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite in south-central Siberia, occupied from around the Last Glacial Maximum of 25,000-14,000 bp. The artifacts include wedge-shaped microcores, microblades, points, and endscrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Two cave sites in the Greater Caucasus Mountains of Georgia with Acheulian layers associated with Middle Pleistocene vertebrates and bifaces, choppers, and sidescrapers. Some Middle Palaeolithic artifacts are associated with Late Pleistocene vertebrates and points and sidescrapers. There are also late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic rock shelter complex in Charente, southwest France, and the name of a subdivision of the CharentianMousteriantradition. The stone tool industry produced thick scrapers with a very curved cutting edge and stepped, splintered retouches. Another industry had many thin scrapers produced by Levallois technique. Human remains include 27 of Neanderthal type.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A series of sites in southeastern Ethiopia where, in the mid-2nd millennium BC, local stone industries made a variety of scrapers. Stone bowls, akin to those of the East African Pastoral Neolithic sites far to the south, also occur.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mungo CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A dry lake with an associated lunette in the Willandra Lakes, a complex of former Pleistocene lakes in western New South Wales, Australia. Excavation of the lunette has produced the best authenticated series of radiocarbon dates for the earliest evidence of man's occupation of Australia, and the remains of a cremated human female date to c 26,000 bp, the oldest evidence of cremation in the world. The remains of a man in an extended inhumation covered with red ochre is dated to c 30,000 bp. Stone tools belong to the Australian Core Tool and Scraper Tradition and there are artifact scatters, freshwater shell middens, and hearths dated by thermoluminescence to 31,400-36,400 years ago. The Willandra Lakes started to dry up c 13,000 BC. The appearance of grinding stones in this period suggest adaptation to wild grain exploitation. Intensive occupation ceased with increasing aridity, although sporadic visits occurred during the Holocene.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mesolithicculture, named after Larne, Ireland, and found only on sites close to coasts and estuaries in western Scotland and eastern Ireland. It is characterized by shell middens and the early toolkits include leaf-shaped points made on a flake, the oldest unambiguous implement in Ireland, and scrapers. Some are dated to 6000 BC. Later assemblages contain more flakes than blades and include tranchet axes and very small scrapers. . More recent work casts doubt on the antiquity of the people who were responsible for the Larnian industry; association with Neolithic remains suggests that they should be considered not as Mesolithic but rather as contemporary with the Neolithic farmers. The Larnian could then be interpreted as a specialized aspect of contemporary Neolithicculture. Lake and riverside finds, especially along the River Bann, show a comparable tradition. A single radioactive carbon date of 5725 +/- 110 BC from Toome Bay, north of Lough Neagh, for woodworking and flint has been cited in support of a Mesolithicphase in Ireland.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A series of caves of long occupation in the central Peruvian highlands, mainly summer hunting camps, the associated winter locus being the lowlands, during the Archaic. The earliest period of occupation was c 8000-6000 BC; this level is characterized by stemless triangular points and stemmed diamond-shaped points. A number of burials indicates a Dolichocephalic population. The willow-leaf points of Lauricocha II (6000-4000 BC) show strong similarities to points at Chivaterros, El Jobo, and Ayampitim and are associated with knives, scrapers, and other hide-working implements. Later levels contain small points and then ceramics.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Lake Forest Late Archaic CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Important Late Archaic tradition in northern New York and Vermont and the upper St. Lawrence valley, c 4000-1500 BC. Characteristic artifacts are broad-bladed, notched projectile points; bifaces, scrapers, and polished-stone tools (celts, gouges, plummets, slate knives or points). The tradition has phases such as Brewerton, Vergennes, and Vosburg.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave near Les Eyzies in the Dordogne region of France that is the type site of the Mousterian or Middle Palaeolithic. The type artifacts from the Mousterian consist of points and side scrapers, in addition to a few hand axes (especially heart- or triangular-shaped forms), and the secondary working is coarse. Upper Palaeolithic levels cover the Mousterian levels in both the classic shelter and the lower shelter. From the lower shelter came a Neanderthal skeleton of nearly mature age.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: Large pointed or rectangular blade which may be retouched to form a point or scraper-like tool. It could be hafted as a spearhead or fighting pick or used as a knife. It is associated with the Australian Small Tool Tradition in northern Australia.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: Describing industries with many blades and blade tools, especially end scrapers, burins, and backed blades, typical of the Upper Palaeolithic. The term leptolithic, literally 'of small stones', has sometimes been used specifically to refer to this type of stonetechnology, without any dating connotation or evolutionary position.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A term used for the Mousterian cultures found at Mount Carmel, Jebel Qafzeh, Shanidar Cave, and other east Mediterranean sites. It was once thought that Levallois flakes signified a Levalloisianculture, while side scrapers indicated a Mousterianculture, and when the two were found together the phenomenon was called Levalloiso-Mousterian. The idea of such a hybrid culture is now generally rejected.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Folsomsite in eastern Colorado with occupation c 11,000 BP, also with Archaic and Late Archaic components. It was a kill, butchering, and campsite and may have been a seasonal meeting and camping place for hunting groups. The Folsom is characterized by a distinct leaf-shaped projectile point, and a variety of scrapers, knives, and blades. It marked the first association in the Americas of man-made artifacts with the bones of long-extinct mammalian forms
Lindner Site, Nauwalabila
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Painted sandstone shelter in Arnhem Land, northern Australia, dating to 20,000 years ago. The lowest levels have Australian Core Tool and Scraper tradition artifacts of older than 18,000 bp. There are edge-ground tools dating c 14,000 bp, Australian Small Tooltradition points of about 6000 bp, and then adzes about 3500 bp.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Lupembian CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A stoneindustry of the Lower Palaeolithic of west-central Africa, developed from a Sangoan predecessor and characterized by tools appropriate for rough woodwork. Lupemban is found in northern Angola and southern Zaire and an important dated site is at Kalambo Falls on the Zambia/Tanzania border. In contrast with the Sangoan, Lupermban assemblages are marked by the fine quality of their bifacial stoneworking technique on elongated double-ended points, large sidescrapers, and thick core-axes. The industry spans from before 30,000 BC until c15,000 BC.
Lupembian / Lupemban
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A stoneindustry of the Lower Palaeolithic of west-central Africa, developed from a Sangoan predecessor and characterized by tools appropriate for rough woodwork. Lupemban is found in northern Angola and southern Zaire and an important dated site is at Kalambo Falls on the Zambia/Tanzania border. In contrast with the Sangoan, Lupermban assemblages are marked by the fine quality of their bifacial stoneworking technique on elongated double-ended points, large sidescrapers, and thick core-axes. The industry spans from before 30,000 BC until c15,000 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Age of the Reindeer CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The final major European culture of the Upper Paleolithic period, from about 15,000-10,000 years ago; characterized by composite or specialized tools, tailored clothing, and especially geometric and representational cave art (e.g. Altamira) and for beautiful decorative work in bone and ivory (mobiliary art). The people were chiefly fishermen and reindeer hunters; they were the first known people to have used a spear thrower (of reindeerbone and antler) to increase the range, strength, and accuracy. Magdalenianstone tools include small geometrically shaped implements (e.g., triangles, semilunar blades) probably set into bone or antler handles for use, burins (a sort of chisel), scrapers, borers, backed bladelets, and shouldered and leaf-shaped projectile points. Bone was used extensively to make wedges, adzes, hammers, spearheads with link shafts, barbed points and harpoons, eyed needles, jewelry, and hooked rods probably used as spear throwers. They killed animals with spears, snares, and traps and lived in caves, rock shelters, or substantial dwellings in winter and in tents in summer. The name is derived from La Madeleine or Magdalene, the type site in the Dordogne of southwest France. Its center of origin was southwest France and the adjacent parts of Spain, but elements characteristic of the later stages are represented in Britain (Creswell Crags), and eastwards to southwest Germany and Poland. The Magdalenianculture, like that of earlier Upper Palaeolithic communities, was adapted to the cold conditions of the last (Würm) glaciation. The Magdalenian has been divided into six phases; it followed the Solutreanindustry and was succeeded by the simplified Azilian. Magdalenianculture disappeared as the cool, near-glacialclimate warmed at the end of the Fourth (Würm) GlacialPeriod (c 10,000 BC), and herd animals became scarce.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite on the Uj River near its confluence with the Yenisei in Siberia. The occupations dated from c 19,000-9000 bp. Artifacts include wedge-shaped microcores, sidescrapers, endscrapers, bone points, and an anthropomorphous figurine.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Four Upper Palaeolithic sites on the Lena River in south-central Siberia. Makarovo II dates between c 11,400-11,950 bp and contains microblades. Makarovo III's assemblage includes sidescrapers, endscrapers, and choppers. Makarovo IV has points, sidescrapers, and endscrapers believed to predate the Last Glacial Maximum.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithicsite in south-central Siberia. There are traces of a dwelling and a burial of a young person of possibly mongoloid affinities, as well as several art objects. The Upper Palaeolithiclevel is dated to the beginning of the last glacial maximum, c 24,000-23,000 bp. The artifacts include prismatic cores, retouched blades, and end scrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite in western Siberia on the Belyj Iyus River with artifacts and faunal remains dating from 34,500-20,370 bp, predating the Last Glacial Maximum. Artifacts include large retouched blades and endscrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Lower Palaeolithic site outside Leipzig, Germany, where gravel pits have gravels earlier than the Saale ice maximum advance in the region. They contain a cold-indicating fauna of early penultimate glacial date and numerous stone artifacts, especially Levallois flakes, sidescrapers, and handaxes. Artifacts and faunal remains are buried in the riverine gravels, probably deposited during the late Middle Pleistocene.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Prehistoric sites in north-central Cambodia, including O Yak, O Pie Can, and O Nari, occupied in the transition between the Neolithic to bronze and then iron. There were polished stone adzes, flaked sidescrapers, and bone projectile points during the Neolithic. Bronze items and clay crucibles followed and then the iron axes and other artifacts.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicculture of the western Ukraine, found in the 5th level of Moldova. The early phase, c 30-25,000 bp, has burins, large retouched blades, and endscrapers; later phases, c 23-12,000 bp, also had backed blades and points.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A group of Palaeolithic caves in Israel, on biblical Mount Carmel, which have between them yielded a long stratigraphy. The most important of these sites are el Wad, es Skhul, Tabun, and Nahal Oren. The sequence begins with coarse flake tools of Tayaciantype, followed by Acheulian handax industries. Associated (and perhaps interstratified) with the final Acheulian were Jabrudian artifacts and eventually blade tools of Amudiantype. The next industry, the Levalloiso-Mousterian, was represented at two caves, Tabun and es Skhul, and was associated with human remains whose evolutionary position is controversial. The sequence continues with the so-called Emiran industry, followed by the Palestine Aurignacian (also called Antelian), by a blade/scraper/burinindustry (the Atlitian), and finally by Natufian. The el Wad has a sequence of Upper Palaeolithic deposits with important Natufian levels at the top and on the plateau outside and numerous associated burials.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mousterian industry CATEGORY: culture; chronology; artifact DEFINITION: A Middle Paleolithic culture that is defined by the development of a wide variety of specialized tools made with prepared-coreknapping techniques, such as spear points. It is named for the first such artifacts recovered from the lower rock shelter at Le Moustier, Dordogne, France. Stone tools, scrapers, and points found in the cave came to be recognized as the flintindustry present throughout Europe during first half of last glaciation (Würm) and associated with Neanderthal. The earliest Mousterian goes back to the Riss glaciation, but most of it comes into the late middle Würm glaciation, giving a total lifespan from 180,000 BC until c 30,000 BP. Flintwork of Mousteriantype (with racloirs, triangular points made on flakes, and -- in some variants -- well-made handaxes) has been found over most of the unglaciated parts of Eurasia, as well as in the Near East and North Africa (in the latter two areas, it constitutes the Middle Palaeolithic). Three major regional variants have been identified -- West, East, and Levalloiso-Mousterian, each with sub-groups. In certain industries, called Levalloiso-Mousterian, the tools were made on flakes produced by the Levallois technique. It was a progressive stage in the manufacture of stone tools. Mousterian peoples mainly lived in cave mouths and rock shelters.
Mousterian of Acheulian Tradition
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: MAT, MTA CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mousterianvariant found in southwest France. Its Type A is characterized by bifaces, backed knives, denticulates, and scrapers. Type B had fewer bifaces and more Upper Palaeolithic burins and awls.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave on Buvuma Island in Lake Victoria, Uganda, with a backed microlithindustry extending back to c 15,000 BC. Small backed bladelets were the most common implements, with endscrapers and some geometrical backed microliths. Backed microliths industries of comparable antiquity are known in East Africa at Nasera, Lukenya Hill, and Matupi.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeolithicsite on the Osm River near its confluence with the Danube in Bulgaria. Artifacts include bifacial foliates and sidescrapers; the layer is estimated to date to the early cold maximum of the Last Glacial.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Painted sandstone shelter in Cape York, Australia, first occupied in the Late Pleistocene. There is the earlier Australian Core Tool and Scraper Tradition and the later Australian Small Tool Tradition.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An elephant butchery site in northern Malawi, undated, but containing scrapers and core axes. The site is of interest as preserving in situ the debris of a single, clearly defined, activity. It has been attributed to the Lupembanindustry.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Backed microlith industries of northern Zambia of the Later Stone Age, named after Nachikufu Cave. The complex, once regarded as a single local tradition (Nachikufan Industrial Complex), was of long duration and divided into three successive phases. The first phase, Nachikufan I, is now seen as a widespread industry, characterized by the presence of large numbers of small pointed backed bladelets, of early date; it extends back as early as c 20,000 BP at such sites as Kalemba and Leopard's Hill, till 12,000 BP. There were also various scrapers and examples of bored stones. The later phases are more restricted geographically and form part of a general continuum of variation among the backed-microlith industries of south-central Africa during the last 7-8 millennia BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Neandertal, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Neanderthals CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An early form of Homo sapiens that inhabited much of Europe and the Mediterranean area during the late Pleistocene Epoch, about 100,000 to 35,000 years ago. Neanderthal remains have also been found in the Middle East, North Africa, and western Central Asia. This type of fossil human that is a subspecies of Homo sapiens and is distinguished by a low broad braincase, continuous arched brow ridges, projecting occipital region, short limbs, and large joints; his brain was as large as modern man's. His flintwork, which in North Africa and Eurasia was of Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) type, was technically more advanced than anything which had gone before (scrapers and points), and the careful burial of dead with funerary offerings provides the oldest surviving evidence for religious beliefs. Neanderthals mainly lived in caves. They used fire and hunted small and medium-sized animals (e.g. goats, deer) and scavenged from the kills of large carnivores. The oldest skeletal remains belong to the Riss-Würm interglacialperiod, but Neanderthal man persisted through the earlier stage of the succeeding Würm glaciation until he was replaced by modern man. This replacement probably took place between 40,000-35,000 BC, but the scarcity of skeletal evidence from the period makes it impossible to give a more precise date. The manner of this replacement is also in doubt. Neanderthal man is sometimes classified as a distinct species of the genus Homo, but has also been considered as falling within the same species as Homo sapiens, whose ancestor he may have been. The species is named after its typearea in Neanderthal, a valley near Düsseldorf in Germany, where skeletal remains of this type of human were first found in 1856.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Northern Archaic tool tradition CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Culture of the North American arctic and subarctic dating to c 6000-4000 bp. The characteristic artifact is the side-notched point. Assemblages also contain oval bifaces, endscrapers, and notched pebbles. The tradition was defined at Onion Portage in the Denbigh Flint Complex and postdates the American Paleo-Arctic Tradition. The peoples are thought to have come there from the south; they hunted terrestrial mammals such as caribou and developed their own styles of artifacts. They showed a preference for expanding northern forests, and, although they left traces outside the forest limits in a few places, they generally avoided the now-deglaciated coasts of Canada's far north.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite in western Slovakia with a Middle Pleistocenelayer with some flakes, Middle Palaeolithic artifacts of sidescrapers and a laurel-leaf point, and artifacts of the Eastern Gravettian.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithic cave site in southern Poland on the Bialka River. Artifacts include an endscraper, blades, and polished woolly mammoth tusk.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite on the Saale River, eastern Germany, dated to 12,542-11,750 bp. There are backed blades, endscrapers, burins, bone points, and Venus figurines. The assemblage is assigned to the Magdalenian.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A group of five sites in Arnhem Land, northern Australia (Padypadiy, Nawamoyn, Malangangerr, Tyimede I and II). Similar tool assemblages dating from 20,000-3000 BC show up at Malanganerr, Nawamoyn, Tyimede II -- thick flake scrapers with steep edges, horsehoof cores, stone hammers, grinders, and waisted or grooved ground-edge axes. The ground-edge axes found at Malangangerr and Nawamoyn in levels dated to 20,000-16,000 BC are the oldest examples of edge-grinding known in Australia. The sudden appearance of estuarine species in shell middens of 5000-4000 BC in the Malangangerr and Nawamoyn deposits reflect rising sea levels. About 2000 years later, at all five sites, small stone points and scrapers appeared and continued until the present. There is also much bark painting in the area.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic sites northeast of Brno in Moravia, Czechoslovakia. There are endscrapers and sidescrapers of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic types.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Literally bone-tooth-horn" referring to the controversial tool "technology" of some early hominids. When there is no sign that a people used wood or stone for tools and when it is supposed that that people did make tools of bones teeth and horns their culture is said to be osteodontokeratic. The term is based on an assemblage of fossilized animal bones found at Taung by Raymond Arthur Dart in South Africa where the first specimen of Australopithecus africanus was found and at Makapansgat where other specimens of A. africanus were found. Dart proposed that these fossils were tools used by A.africanus an early hominid species. He postulated that teeth were used as saws and scrapers long bones as clubs and so on. He explained his theory on the basis of the fact that certain bones turned up regularly while others were rarely found. Later research however cast doubt on the general interpretation of altered bone-remains as tools. More likely the accumulation studied by Dart resulted from the natural breakdown of skeletons predators and damage to the bones by falling stones."
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A traditiongrouping industries of the Early Holocene in the western Arctic, including American Paleo-Arctic and Siberian Paleo-Arctic which are derived from Siberian Upper Paleolithic. Common features are blades and microblades, small wedge-shaped cores of campus" type various kinds of bifaces in varying degrees foliated end scrapers side scrapers and often burins of thick flakes."
Paleo-Indian or Palaeoindian
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Paleoindians; Early Lithic CATEGORY: culture; chronology DEFINITION: One of the prehistoric people who migrated from Asia and settled throughout the Americas no later than 10,000 BC. They existed as big-game hunters from about 10,000 BC to about 6000 BC in the Great Plains and eastern North America. (The other tradition at the time was the Desert-culture peoples of the western basin-rangeregion.) Some regard the term as referring to all hunting groups involved with now-extinct mammals, in which case the peoples who hunted the species of bison that became extinct about 4500 BC would also be classified as Paleo-Indians. The oldest remains of the Paleo-Indian tradition are found on sites where large Pleistocene mammals were killed and butchered. The most distinctive artifact type of this horizon is the Clovis Fluted projectile point, which was accompanied by sidescrapers. Paleo-Indians are most frequently associated with mammoth, although associations with extinct species of bison, horse, and camel have also been reported. The term also refers to the earliest period in New World chronology, representing the time up to the development of agriculture and villages. In yet another sense, it refers to the period in archaeology (also called Early Lithic) beginning with the earliest stone tools, about 750,000 years ago.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave site near Thessalonika, Greece, with a series of occupations probably from the early Last Glacial to the early Middle Pleistocene. A virtually complete skull is now seen to be close to Homo sapiens, c 400,000 years old. Other artifacts include scrapers, chopping tools and spheres of the early Mousterian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: San Dieguito-Pinto, Pinto/Gypsum Complex CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Culture of southern California deserts with characteristic Pinto points, a heavy often crudely made projectile point with triangularblade, narrow stem, and indentedbase. Artifacts also include plano-convex bifaces, scraper planes, choppers, hammerstones, and flat grinding slabs. Pinto was c 5000-2000 BC and the sometimes related Gypsum (in the Pinto/Gypsum Complex) c 1500 BC-600 AD.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Archaic cemeterysite in northwest Newfoundland, Canada, dated between late 3rd-late 2nd millennia BC. The 100 burials had grave goods of ochre, polished slate, barbed bone points, toggled boneharpoon heads, shell beads and combs, needles, knives, and scrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite in Slovenia's mountains with artifacts and faunal remains of the Last Glacial. The assemblage includes sidescrapers, endscrapers, and retouched blades of the Aurignacian.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A term for a group of Arctic cultures and complexes characterized by microblades, knives, scrapers, and burins and coming before the Dorsetculture (c 3000 BP). They hunted seal, walrus, and some land animals and originated in the 5th millennium BP. Pre-Dorset is part of the Arctic Small-Tool Tradition.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave site in the Crimea, Ukraine, occupied from possibly early in the Last Glacial. Artifacts include sidescrapers, bifacial foliates, and workedbone and are assigned to the Ak-Kaya culture.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter in the Warburton Ranges of the Western Desert, Western Australia with occupation from c 8000 BC. It is part of the 'Australian desert culture' with stone tools in the earliest levels consisting of small stone scrapers (micro-adze flakes or thumbnail scrapers), large flake scrapers, and horsehoof cores. Larger adze flakes and seed grinders appeared around 5000 BC. Microliths (Bondi points and crescents) were present from 2000 BC. The earlier tool types persisted until the present, with late addition of flake knives and hand axes. The preponderance of adze flakes showed the significance of woodworking in the desert culture.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A rather small or medium-sized thin leaf-shaped piece of slint that could be mistaken for a small knife, scraper, or triangular notchless arrowhead
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sidescraper CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A large scraper that has the retouched working edge along the long edge of the flake. The racloir is one of the most characteristic Mousterian implements and may have served as both knife and (side)scraper.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeolithic cave site on the Mur River in southeast Australia with artifacts and faunal remains of a warm interval. There is an undated assemblage of Lower or Middle Palaeolithic sidescrapers, etc.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Prehistoric site in eastern Romania, starting with a Lower Palaeolithic containing flakes. Six overlying levels are assigned to the Middle Palaeolithic and have sidescrapers and bifacial foliates, of at least c 46,400-40,200 bp. There are also Aurignacian, Gravettian, and post-Palaeolithic assemblages.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Nelson Bay Cave CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Later Stone Age microlithic industry of southern and eastern Cape Province, South Africa, dated to c 18,000-12,000 BP. There are many diminutive artifacts with few retouched implements, including bladelet cores, bladelets, scrapers, and backed bladelets. Worked bone and ostrich eggshell beads have also been found.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter on the Jos Plateau of central Nigeria with two main artifact-bearing layers, the first containing large scrapers and backed crescent-shaped implements, but no pottery. The later horizon contained a backed microlithic industry and pottery, and dates to 2000 BP.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite on the Sea of Azov in European Russia with six cultural levels, dated from the early Last Glacial. Artifacts include sidescrapers and typical Upper Palaeolithic tools.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic cave site in western Georgia on the Tskhaltsitela River. Assemblages include scrapers and denticulates from the Middle Palaeolithic and backed blades and points of the Upper Palaeolithic. Skeletal fragments classified as Neanderthal are in one of the lower levels of the Middle Palaeolithic.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave site on the Iskr River in Bulgaria. The layers date back to the early Last Glacial and the upper layers are estimated to 42,780 bp. Artifacts include scrapers and bifacial foliates.
San Dieguito complex
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Late Palaeoindiancomplex of California, southwestern Nevada, and western Arizona, c 8000-7000 BC. Characteristic artifacts are leaf-shaped biface points or knives, choppers, scrapers, and hammerstones. It postdates the Clovis in local sequences. this tradition was distinct from the Desert Culture in its reliance on hunting rather than gathering.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Stone toolindustry or complex of Sango Bay in Uganda on Lake Victoria, a Mainly Middle Pleistoceneseries of assemblages containing heavy-duty picks (core axes), handaxes, scrapers, finely flaked lanceolate points, cleavers, and small specialized tools. The Sangoan may have developed from a late Acheulian basis, and which was roughly contemporary with the Mousterian of Europe, dating to 100,000-20,000 BP. The term is loosely applied to a rather heterogeneous group of industries in eastern and south-central Africa, and perhaps in West Africa, also. The most informative site for the composition and sequence of Sangoan industries is at Kalambo Falls, Zambia. In several regions of Zaire and neighboring countries, the Sangoan appears to mark the first human settlement of the low-lying country now occupied by the equatorial forest.
Santa Isabel Iztapán
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Two mammoth kill-sites in southeast Chiapas, Mexico, with human occupation dating to 9250 years ago. At one site, a skeleton was found scrapers, knives, and blades of flint and obsidian, as well as a stemmed projectile point of flint. The second mammothsite yielded a chertknife, a leaf-shaped point of flint, and a lanceolate point with a flat base. Similar kill sites were found at San Bartolo Atepehuacan, on the outskirts of Mexico City and at Tepexpan. The site is important as an indicator of the rapidity with which newly arrived (Asian) hunters dispersed southward. Stone tools of both the Big Game Hunting Tradition and the Old Cordilleran Tradition were found in the same levels, which is puzzling and infers a combination of hunting techniques were used.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Yubetsu CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Palaeolithic sites in Hokkaido, Japan, with a large number of obsidian artifacts dating from about 18,000-13,000 BC, and including large blades, burins, scrapers, and some bifacial points. There are more bifacial points and microblades in a younger group, which dates c13,000-10,000 BC. The microblades were made by a special technique, called the Yubetsu technique, where a large biface is made into a core which looks like a tall carinatedscraper. The technology is also called Yubetsu, though the type site is Shirataki-Hattoridai.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: [Shih-yu] CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Late Palaeolithicsite in Shanxi Province, China, with a fossil human occipital bone and a radiocarbon date of c 28,000 bp. There are small scrapers, points, and microlithic blades and cores.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A tool similar in shape to a scraper but with serrated edges, which may have been the forerunner of the saw. Primitive tribes today use similar stones to stroke sinews into fibers for sewing.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Later Stone Age industry and hunting and gathering culture of southern Africa, originally thought contemporary with the Wilton, but technologically different from it, and now referring to a complex between 1300-1700 AD. The culture was on the same level as that of the Mesolithic people of Europe or the modern Kalahari bushmen. The unifying feature of this industry was the almost complete absence of backed microliths and tiny semicircular scrapers.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: [Sokchangni] CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeolithicsite in southern Korea (South Ch'ungch'ong province) with 12 cultural layers starting with c 20,000 bp. That layer contained obsidian scrapers, rhyolite burins, and prismatic cores.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Solutrian CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A culture of the Upper Paleolithic period in western Europe, from about 19,000 BC, following the Perigordian and Aurignacian; characterized by the use of projectile points, especially the laurel-leaf blade. From Solutré, a site in central France, it was a short-lived style of toolmaking with particularly fine workmanship. The Solutreanindustry, like those of other late Paleolithic big-game hunters, contained a variety of tools such as burins, scrapers, and borers; but blades that were formed in the shape of laurel or willow leaves and shouldered points are the implements that distinguish the Solutrean. It preceded the Magdalenian in parts of France and Spain. At Laugerie-Haute, unifacially chipped leaf-shaped points in the Early Solutrean show the gradual development of bifacial working, a stage dated c 19,000-18,000 BC. The Middle phase is characterized by fine large bifacial points and by the introduction of pressure flaking. In the Later Solutrean, this technique was used to produce slim leaf-shaped projectiles and small single-shouldered points. In southeast Spain this final stage also has barbed and tanged arrowheads. The laurel leaves" were typical of Middle Solutrean and "willow leaves" (shouldered points) were from the Later Solutrean. The boneneedle with an eye was invented in this period. Many decorated caves in France can be assigned to this period."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Son Vi CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Pre-Hoabinhianstoneindustry in Upper Palaeolithic cave sites around the Red River valley of northern Vietnam. It is regarded as the immediate predecessor (or an early stage) of the Hoabinhian and of late Pleistocene date c 18,000-9000 BC. It is characterized by unifacially flaked pebbles, some bifacially worked pebbles, choppers, side-scrapers, and 'round-edged' pebbles. Son Vi is the type site of this industry.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeolithicsite in Oita Prefecture, Japan, where a date of 4000,000 bp was claimed based on geology and tool comparisons with Zhoukoudian. A few hundred tools, mostly of quartzite, were recovered from a secondary deposit on a marine terrace, including hand axes, scrapers, and flakes. A date of only 70,000 bp is accepted by many archaeologists.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Early Upper Palaeolithicculture on the Don River in European Russia, dating to c 40,000-30,000 bp. Its artifacts include burins, retouched blades and scrapers, bone tools and ornaments.
Stanca Ripiceni Cave
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite in eastern Romania with four cultural layers starting c 25,000 bp. There are bifaces, scrapers, and burins in the lowest assemblage and geometric microliths in the uppermost assemblage.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Starosel'e CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic rock shelter in the Crimea with artifacts (scrapers, bifacial foliates) and faunal remains (arctic fox, reindeer, wild ass). The skeleton of a child and bones of an adult are modern humans, which is problematic in relation to the dates of the artifacts and faunal remains.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite in the Altairegion of Siberia with occupation probably prior to the Last Glacial. The artifacts are Levallois cores, scrapers, and denticulates.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Latin strigilis CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A narrow curved scraper, made of horn or metal (bronze, silver), used by Roman and Greek bathers for the cleansing of the skin. A strigil was used to remove olive oil applied after bathing or exercising. Romans used them particularly in the hot room (caldarium) and the task was often performed by slaves. On Athenian pottery, strigils are shown in the hands of athletes.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithic cave site in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary, predating the Last Glacial. Artifacts include scrapers and there are skeletal remains with Neanderthal characteristics.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite at Volgograd on the Volga River (European Russia), occupied from the Last Interglacial; one of the few Last Interglacial sites on the Russian Plain. Artifacts are scrapers and bifacial foliates.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sulphur Springs CATEGORY: culture; site DEFINITION: The earliest of three stages of the Cochiseculture, named for a cluster of sites in southeast Arizona, and dating from 6000 / 7000 BC to c 4000 BC. Evidence of plant food processing (cobble manos) together with split and burnt faunal remains, imply an Archaic lifestyle, although there are almost no projectile points, blades, or knives. Besides milling stones, it is characterized by various scrapers. The remains of food animals indicate that some hunting was done.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: One of three neighboring South African sites where important fossil hominid remains have been found -- a short distance from Sterkfontein and Kromdraai. The valley is the richest hominid site in South Africa and Swarkrans dates between 1.8-1 million years ago, with remains of possibly over 60 individuals of Australopithecus robustus. The Swartkrans artifacts are mainly relatively crude stonechopper cores, flakes, and scrapers made of quartzite and quartz, and some bone tools. The stone tools, including rough hand axes, are attributed to the Developed Oldowan. A second hominid is present, probably Homo erectus or habilis. Fire-blackened bones of 1.5-1 million years ago may be the oldest known direct evidence for the use of fire.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Late Upper Palaeolithicindustry of Poland known from sites such as Calowanie and Swidry Wielkie. They are associated with dune deposits dating to the end of the Pleistocene c 11,000-9000 BP. They are characterized by elongated tanged points, burins, and scrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Cave site on the Szinva River in the Bükk Mountains of Hungary, occupied from the Middle Palaeolithic. The Upper Palaeolithic with laurel-leaf points and scrapers is dated c 41,700 bp and there are Neolithic remains.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Early Upper Palaeolithicindustry of central Europe with bifacial foliated points and sidescrapers, but it has also been applied to the industries with foliated points which mark the transition from the Middle Paleolithic to Upper Paleolithic periods throughout the eastern part of central Europe. It appears to have developed from the Middle Palaeolithic (Micoquian). The type site is Szeleta Cave in the Bükk Mountains in Hungary. The culture seems to date between 45,000-25,000 BC, the middle of the Last Glacial. Later assemblages contain endscrapers and retouched blades.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in northwest Venezuela, dated from 12,000-15,000 BP, with bifacial tools, scrapers, blades, and leaf-shaped points. Mastodon bones were also found. It may be a pre-Clovis occupation.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site on the lower Murray River, South Australia, with small cores, scrapers, bone points, grinding stones, and tula adze flakes dated to c 4000 BC. Skeletons of two juveniles found have some cranial features similar to the robust Talgai skull.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Small group of forest food collectors isolated in the rain-forests of Mindanao, the Philippines, first reported by anthropological investigators in 1971. Numbering 25 at the time, the Tasadays have a simple technology and food-gathering strategy. Linguistic studies suggest that they may instead have descended from an original horticultural population and simplified their own culture during about 700 years of isolation. The Tasaday were dressed only in loincloths and skirts made of orchid leaves, used only crude stone tools (axes and scrapers) and wooden implements (fire drills and digging sticks), and had no weapons for hunting or war.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Island that was part of the Australian continent during the late Pleistocene, then separated by rising sea levels which formed Bass Strait about 9000 BC. Occupation of southwestern Tasmania by 30,000 bp is now well established. At the time of European contact, Tasmanian aborigines had a simple tool kit of stone flakes and core scrapers, pebble choppers, wooden pointed spears, digging sticks, clubs, and throwing sticks. They lacked all the post-Pleistocene tools known on the mainland. At sites on the northwestern tip, deposits are dated to c 6000 BC with bone points, stone scrapers, and pebble tools. Around 1000 BC, bone points disappeared and there is evidence of fish exploitation. Pecked engravings at Mount Cameron West resemble the Panaramitee style of central Australia. The arrival of Europeans was disastrous, with Tasmanians becoming almost extinct in the 19th century.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite on the Danube River in Hungary with artifacts and fauna, including woolly mammoth, horse, and wild ass, and dated to the early Last Glacial. Tools are sidescrapers, bifaces, Upper Palaeolithic tools.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite on the Khilok River in south-central Siberia with faunal remains dated c 34,860 and c 27,210 bp. Artifacts include retouched blades, sidescrapers, endscrapers, points, and burins.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Any existing physical object that is in some way fashioned or altered by humans and employed for a specific task or purpose. Tools made of stone included of axes, adzes, arrowheads, spearheads, daggers, knife blades, scrapers, borers, burins, picks, etc. The first tools date back to c 2,600,000 years ago, the beginning of the Paleolithic Age, and are different-sized pebble tools called choppers. The chopper was the only tool used by man for almost 2,000,000 years, until the appearance of the hand ax, a superior (and sharper) version of the chopper.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A lithicindustry in Palaeolithic caves and open-air sites around the bay of Uluzzo, in Apulia, southern Italy. The most important is Grotta Cavallo, with a series of Mousterian and Upper Palaeolithic levels. The earliest Upper Palaeolithic levels are called the Uluzzian (c 33,000 bp) and include scrapers, denticulates, small curved backed points, and crescents. It occurred after the final Mousterian and was contemporary with early Aurignacian.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicsite in the Altairegion of Siberia with Levallois cores, sidescrapers, and points of probably just before the Last Glacial.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Prehistoric site in south-central Alaska with radiocarbon dates c 11,820-11,010 bp. The assemblage includes Chindadn points and endscrapers of the Nenana complex.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Wiltonian CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Microlithic Later Stone Age industry with its type site in a rock shelter in Cape Province, South Africa and found in other parts of eastern and southern Africa. It is the African equivalent of the Mesolithic cultures of Europe, though of later date, and in its final stage shows contact with the Iron Age farmers of the 1st millennium AD. It occurred over the last 8000 years. In the rock shelter area, the characteristic tool is the tiny convex or 'thumbnail' scraper; crescent-shaped backed microliths, adzes, and backed blades are also present. There is rock painting, plant remains, and faunal remains of non-gregarious" browsing antelope as well as evidence of fishing. Around the beginning of the Christian era the descendants of the Wilton folk acquired domestic sheep and possibly cattle and learned the art of potterymanufacture (called post-climax Wilson or ceramicWilton)."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Windmill Hill culture CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Neolithic causewayed camp north of Avebury, Wiltshire, England, the type site of the culture of the same name. The camp of c 3350 BC has three ditch circuits which are part of the Aveburycomplex of Neolithicritual monuments. Windmill Hill ware sensu stricto (decorated with grooves and pits), was closely followed by the oldest (Ebbsfleet) variant of Peterborough ware -- 3330 +/- 150. More recent levels have Peterborough styles, groovedware, and beaker sherds. An earthen long barrow has a radiocarbon date of 4030 +/- 150 and there is a cemetery of Bronze Age round barrows. This culture and that of Peterborough were the two first main food-growing and cattle-raising peoples. Stone axes, coarse scrapers, and pressure-flaked leaf-shaped arrowheads were used. They raised pigs, cattle, goats, and had dogs for herding; cereals were grown. The pottery is now divided into separate traditions (Grimston-Lyles Hill, Hembury, Abingdon), and the rest of the cultural content, causewayed camps, long barrows, leaf-shaped arrowheads and polished flint or other stone axes, is now regarded as simply 'British Neolithic'. The culture existed until c 2500 BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Upper Palaeolithicsite in Poland with artifacts of the Aeolian c 11,020 bp -- including blades, burins, and endscrapers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Town and cave site in eastern Sierra Leone with one of the few stratified sequences of Palaeolithic and Neolithicstone industries in that country. Crudely flaked picks, choppers, and flake-scrapers; hoe-like tools and backed blades have been found. In another phase, pottery and ground stone tools are found for the first time. Thermoluminescence tests dated the third-phasepottery at c 2000 BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Palaeolithicrock shelters and caves in the Crimea, Ukraine, some with 6-7 occupation levels. Some are dated to an interstadial preceding the early cold maximum of the last glacial. Artifacts include bifacial foliates and Ak-Kaya culture sidescrapers. Neanderthal fossils have been found.