SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sherd, shard CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Any potteryfragment -- piece of broken pot or other earthenware item -- that has archaeological significance. Often abbreviated to sherd, potsherds are an invaluable part of the archaeological record because they are well-preserved. The analysis of ceramic changes recorded in potsherds has become one of the primary techniques used by archaeologists in assigning components and phases to times and cultures.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: shard, potsherd CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Any potteryfragment -- piece of broken pot or other earthenware item -- that has archaeological significance. Often abbreviated to sherd, potsherds are an invaluable part of the archaeological record because they are well-preserved. The analysis of ceramic changes recorded in potsherds has become one of the primary techniques used by archaeologists in assigning components and phases to times and cultures.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in Wiltshire, England, at which stands one of Britain's finest megalithic monuments (known as henges) and one of the largest ceremonial structures in Europe. It was built c 2000 BC in the Neolithic, where the ridgeways of southern England meet, a natural site for tribal gatherings. It consists of a large bank with internal ditch (1.2 km long) with four equally spaced entrances. Inside the ditch was set a circle of 98 sarsen stones, weighing as much as 40 tons each. In the center were two smaller stone circles, each c 100 meters in diameter. The northern circle contains a U-shaped setting of three large stones, and the southern inner circle once had a complexarrangement of stones at its center. The RingStone, a huge stone perforated by a natural hole, stood within the earthworks and main stonecircle at the southern entrance. The southern entrance leads out to two parallel rows of sarsens forming an avenue 15 m wide and 2.5 km long which ends at a ritual building (the so-called Sanctuary) on Overton Hill. Traces of a second avenue remain on the opposite side of the monument. From the bottom of the ditchcame sherds of Neolithic Windmill Hill, Peterborough, and Grooved Ware styles, while higher up were fragments of South British (Long Necked) Beaker and Bronze Age pottery. Burials with Beaker and Rinyo-Clacton wares have been excavated at the bases of some of the stones. Near the southern end of the Avenue was an occupation site with Neolithic and Beaker sherds. The complex geometry of the site is studied, especially the possible astronomical alignments built into it. The circles at Avebury and the wooden structure on Overton Hill were all probably built at the same time by Neolithic communities.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: The main part of a vessel that contains the volume (or sherds of it); also, the prepared mixture of clay and temper used to make ceramics.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A fortified Bronze Age acropolis in southeast Malta and the name its culture on the island. The settlement was surrounded by walls of cyclopean masonry and enclosed oval huts. The discovery of a sherd of Mycenaean pottery points to long-distance trading contacts. Bronze Age tools and weapons have been found at Borg in-Nadur.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Brak, Tall Birak at-Tahtani CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A tell on the upper Khabur River in Syria which had an Akkadian fortress and garrison and was occupied from at least the Halaf and Ubaidperiod until the mid-2nd millennium BC. On the Syrian-Iraqi border, it was a powerful fortress on the imperial line of communication and its most important remains are the four 'Eye Temples' of the Jemdet Nasr period, c 3000 BC. They are so-called for the large number of small, flat alabaster figurines of which the eyes are the only recognizable features. Eye temples were decorated with claycones, copper panels, and gold work, in a style very similar to that found in the contemporary temples of Sumer. Halaf, Ubaid, and Uruk sherds have been found. When the site became a frontier post of the kingdom of Akkad, a palace was built by Naram-Sin c 2280 BC, and it became a depot for the storage of tribute and loot. The city was plundered after the fall of the Akkadian empire, but the palace was rebuilt in the Ur III period by Ur Nammu. A Roman fort was built there later.
Chiapa de Corzo
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site on the Grijalva River in Chiapas, Mexico, with one of the longest occupational sequences in Mesoamerica, c 1500 BC to the present. It flourished in Late Pre-Classic to Early Classic times with adobe construction, ceramics and figurines, and then pyramids dating to 550 BC and residential complexes of cut stone to 150 BC. The style and iconography of certain artifacts indicate contact with Izapa and Kaminaijuyu in the Late Pre-Classic. Hundreds of broken sherds tell of tradecontact with sites in the Penen, Monte Alban, and Teotihuacan in the Early Classic.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: Small stones or sherds in the mortar joints of a masonry wall.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Early Neolithicsite of the Paris Basin's Linear Pottery culture that was occupied c 4800 BC. There were timber longhouses, pits, potsherds decorated in Bandkeramik, grindstones, flint tools, and waste flakes.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An important Biblical tellsite of Palestine near Jerusalem, occupied from the Chalcolithic (5th millennium BC) to the Byzantine period. The first fortified town belonged to the Middle Bronze Age (early 2nd millennium BC); an important discovery of this phase was a 'High Place' (ceremonial meeting place) consisting of a row of 10 tall monoliths. To the Iron Age belong the remains of a gateway built by Solomon. Succeeding levels show a decline, with destruction attributed to Assyrians and later, Babylonians. The city became important again in the Hellenistic period. The most noteworthy finds were a potsherd with one of the earliest uses of the alphabet (18th-17th c BC) and the Gezercalendar (11th-10th centuries BC), the oldest known inscription in Early Hebrew writing. The city was particularly prosperous during 2nd millennium BC and is mentioned in Egyptian texts from 15th century onwards.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The heaviest materials that sink to the bottom of flotation equipment mesh -- such as pottery sherds, flint, and large seeds.
heavy mineral analysis
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method of analysis carried out on artifacts such as potsherds to identify the materials used; the shard is crushed and put into a viscous fluid in which the heavier minerals sink to the bottom. It is used to determine the geological source of the sand inclusions in the clay of the pot, and therefore the probable area of manufacture. The method involves the crushing of 10-30 g. of pottery and the floating of the resulting powder on a heavy liquid such as bromoform with a specific gravity of 2.85. Heavy minerals like zircon, garnet, epidote, and tourmaline sink, while quartzsand and clayfloat: it is the heavy minerals (separated, identified, and counted under a low-power microscope) which characterize the parent formation, and which enable the source of the sand to be identified.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Early Neolithic passage grave in Brittany, of dry-stone walling with a corbelled vault to the chamber and dated to c 3270 bc. Inside were only a few sherds and flint flakes.
Kroeber, Alfred Louis (1876-1960)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: American anthropologist who made great contributions to American Indian ethnology; to the archaeology of New Mexico, Mexico, and Peru; and to the study of linguistics, folklore, kinship, and social structure. He was one of the small group of scholars whose work laid the basis of New World archaeology as a scientific discipline. His first work was in preparing a typological seriation of potsherds from Zuñi sites of the American southwest, and his work, together with that of Kidder and Nelson in the same area, showed how archaeological methods could reveal time depth and cultural change in North America. From 1921, Kroeber applied the same techniques to Max Uhle's Peruvian collections. He worked out a scheme for Peruvian archaeology which formed the basis of all studies of the subject for the next 20 years. Kroeber explored much of the Peruvian coast, especially the Nasca Valley where he made the first-ever stratigraphic excavation of a Peruvian midden. Kroeber continued to write about the ethnology of North American Indians and also concentrated on theoretical aspects of anthropology, in particular the processes of culture change. His Configurations of Culture Growth" (1945) sought to trace the growth and decline of all of civilized man's thought and art. "The Nature of Culture" (1952) was a collection of Kroeber's essays published on such topics as cultural theorykinship social psychology and psychoanalysis."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An early Pre-Classic village site located on the Pacific coastal region of Ocos in Guatemala. The site's earliest phase dates to c 1300 BC and contains Olmec or Olmec-influenced pottery, some of which has been traded to other areas of Mesoamerica. The later Conchas Phase, 800-300 BC, contains sherds of a unique striped design which has also been found in Ecuador, indicating probable ocean trade.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Tell Duweir, Tell ed-Duweir CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palestinian Biblical site which was a Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age cave dwelling, after which the caves were used for burials and a settlement founded. A massive plastered glacis of Hyksostype belonged to the Middle Bronze Age settlement, but was destroyed by the Egyptians c 1580 BC. The Canaanites built three successive temples in the 15th-13th centuries BC. Lachish was sacked in 701 BC by the Assyrians, noted in the palace reliefs in Nineveh. It fell to Babylonians in 588 BC. There were later levels of Achaemenid and Hellenistic date. The site is most famous for three vital groups of inscriptions, including a dagger dated to the 18th or 17th century BC with four symbols engraved on it -- one of the earliest alphabetic inscriptions known. Lachish has also produced a group of incised pottery vessels associated with the temple at the foot of the mound and dated to c1400 BC, and a group of incised potsherds found within a guardhouse by the gate and dating to the period immediately before the Babylonian destruction.
Li Chi (1896-1979)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: [Li Ch'i] CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: Chinese archaeologist responsible for establishing the historical authenticity of the semilegendary Shangdynasty of China (c 1766-1122 BC). He supervised numerous excavations at Anyang (An-yang), working to identify the features distinguishing the Shangcivilization from previous Neolithic cultures. More than 300 tombs, including four important royal burial sites, were uncovered and carefully studied. Some 1,100 skeletons and oracle bones, unquestionably linked with the Shangperiod, were recovered. Li Chi created a typology of bronzes based on their shapes, of ceramic sherds, and bone hairpins. Following the Japanese invasion of China and the expulsion of the Chinese Nationalists from the mainland, many of Li's Anyang remains and notes were lost. After escaping to Taiwan, he established the first archaeology and anthropology department at a Chinese university (National University in Taipei). He published a number of books, including The Beginnings of Chinese Civilization" (1957). "
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Indonesian traders, particularly from Sulawesi, who visited tropical Australia during the Indonesian monsoon season. They collected and processed sea-slugs (trepang, bêche-de-mer, sea cucumber), an important ingredient in their cooking. Archaeological evidence consists of stone structures used to support boiling vats, scatters of Indonesian potsherds, ash concentrations from smokehouses, graves, and living tamarind trees descended from seeds brought by the trepangers. Their cultural legacies to the Aborigines included metal tools, dugout canoes, vocabulary, art motifs, song cycles, rituals, and depictions of Macassan praus in rock paintings and stone arrangements. Macassan voyagers to Australia arrived around 1700 AD and continued till the end of the 19th century.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A series of early Formative Period sites on the coast of Ecuador of c 2000 BC, known chiefly through ceramics -- the distinctive Macalilla ceramic complex. Traded sherds found in both Valdivia C and Late Tutish-Canyno contexts suggest mid- to late 2nd millennium BC. Machalillaceramics, in contrast to Valdivian, are painted (red banded and black-on-white) and figurines are rare and crudely made. Wattle-and-daub fragments in middens indicate that houses existed, but no foundations have been defined.
mean ceramic date
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: mean ceramic dating; mean ceramic dating formula CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A statistical technique devised by Stanley South for pooling the median age of manufacture for temporally significant pottery types at American Colonial sites. It is especially applicable to 18th-century sites, where many distinctive ceramic types may be expected to occur in large numbers. The meanceramic date is found by multiplying the sum of the median dates for the manufacture of each ceramictype of the frequency of each ceramictype and dividing this figure by the total frequency of all ceramic types. The median date for each type is arrived at from documentary evidence. One shortcomings is that the supposition that the median date coincides with the period of maximum use; another is the use of a count of sherds rather than whole vessels.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The tellsite of Yümük-Tepe on the southern coast of Turkey (Anatolia) with 33 major levels, the bulk of which are Neolithic and Chalcolithic. The lowest levels were of an Early Neolithic characterized by monochrome impressed wares and radiocarbon dated to 6000 BC. A long series of Chalcolithic levels were tied into the Mesopotamian sequence (Hassuna, Halaf, Ubaid, etc.) by imported sherds. Occupation resumed in the Middle Bronze Age until the Iron Age. The Iron Age levels have ceramic evidence of contacts with the Aegean world. There are also Byzantine and medieval (c 1500 AD) occupations.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pl. ostraca; ostracon (pl. ostraka) CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A potsherd or, more rarely, a flake of stone, bearing an inscription in ink or paint. In Greece they were employed for voting; in Egypt for memoranda, business accounts, writing exercises, jottings, artist's sketches, and listmaking. They commonly consisted of personal jottings, letters, sketches, or scribal exercises, but also often inscribed with literary texts. They could also be fragments from inscribed jars (e.g. a wine jarinscribed with the details of a vintage). Ostraca are known from all periods, but 19th- and 20th-Dynasty examples are commonest (up to 20,000 have been found) in Egypt. Most of the Egyptian examples are in hieratic or demotic, but there are also cursivehieroglyphic texts and numerous pictures, including drafts of hieroglyphic inscriptions. The term is derived from the classical Greek voting practice of ostrakismos (ostracism), a 5th-century BC political move in which each citizen could write upon a potsherd the name of someone whom he wished to see banished. If sufficient votes were cast against one person (the number seems to have been 6,000), the person named would be banished for ten years. The usage of inscribed sherds seems to have spread to Egypt with the Greek conquest. Ostraca from the New Kingdom are especially numerous. Deir el-Medina's ostraca is a great source of evidence for the life of its workmen's village and community.
Peoples of the Sea
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sea People(s), Peoples of the Islands in the Midst of the Sea CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Any of the groups of aggressive seafarers who invaded eastern Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, and Egypt toward the end of the Bronze Age, especially in the 13th century BC. They are considered responsible for the destruction of the Hittite Empire, among others. Because of the abrupt break in ancient Near Eastern records as a result of the invasions, the precise extent and origin of the upheavals remain uncertain. Principal evidence is based on Egyptian texts and illustrations; other important information comes from Hittite sources and from archaeological data. The peoples were of mixed origin and tentative identifications of the people are: Pulesati/Pelset/Peleset = Philistines; Luka/Lukka = Lycians; Akawasha/Ahhiyawa/Ekwesh = Achaeans; Danuna = Danaoi; Sherden/Sherdana/Shardana = Sardinians; Shekelesh/Sicels/Sikels/Siculi = Sicilians; Tursha/Tyrsi/Teresh/Tyrrhenians (Tyrsenoi) = Etruscans. The Philistines, who perhaps came from Crete, were the only major tribe of the Sea Peoples to settle permanently in Palestine.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pottery Information Equivalent CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A unit containing as much statistical information as a single complete vessel but based on the sum of completeness indices of sherds. The PIE values yield unbiased estimates of the proportion of each potterytype in a sampled population.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: One of the oldest of the decorative arts, consisting of objects made of clay and hardened with heat. The objects are commonly useful. Earthenware is the oldest and simplest form of pottery; stoneware is a pottery compound that is fired at a sufficiently high temperature to cause it to vitrify and become extremely hard; and porcelain, finer than stoneware and generally translucent, is made by adding feldspar to kaolin and then firing at a high temperature. Its raw material is common, shaping and baking it are simple, and it can be given an infinite variety of forms and decorations. Pottery sherds, almost indestructible, are one of the commonest finds and are very important to archaeologists. It is often one of the clearest indicators of cultural differences, relationships, and developments, and its techniques of manufacture can be comparatively easily recovered by ceramic analysis. It can be shown whether it was modeled, coil-built, or wheel-made. The nature of its fabric, ware, or body can be identified, as can any surface treatment such as slip, paint, or burnish. The wide range of methods of decoration can also be studied. As the date of manufacture can usually be fixed, pieces of pottery give clues to archaeologists as to the date of other finds at the site. Petrological analysis of inclusions has been used to trace the source of pot clays and thus reconstruct ancient trade in pottery. Archaeologists usually call fired potclay the 'fabric' of a piece of pottery. Texture, mineralogy, and color of fabric may be used to describe and classify pottery.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in northern Louisiana with a spectacular group of late Archaic sites, c 1300-400 BC in the Woodland stage. The site consisted of six concentric octagons, each formed of earthen ridges that seem to have been used as dwelling areas. There are also two mounds, and from the larger one the vernal and autumnal equinoxes can be observed directly over the center of the village. Artifacts include numerous clay balls used for cooking in lieu of heated stones, microliths, stonesmoking pipes and vessels, clay figurines, and fiber-tempered pottery sherds. The clay balls are found in thousands, both here and at other sites in the Lower Mississippi valley. A high level of social organization is indicated by the presence of earthworks like that at Poverty Point, but there is very little evidence of the practice of agriculture.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Cave site in Charente, France, with deposits from the early Middle Neolithic to the La Téne Iron Age. Late Bronze Age sherds of c 800 BC had incised symbols and similar sings are on potsherds in other parts of France. They are a form of proto-writing.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in the western Punjab, Pakistan, with a culture of 3400-2500 BC leading up to the Mature Harappan civilization. Early levels have a regional painted pottery; the ceramics became Kot Diji style. There is graffiti on sherds, possibly an antecedent to the Harappan script.
CATEGORY: term; artifact DEFINITION: The transformation of materials through successive states within the behavioral system. Potsherds, for example, are sometimes ground up to be used as temper in making new vessels.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A distinctive large storage jar made in the Rhineland in the 7th century, mainly at Badorf pottery centers. Each was strengthened with clay straps or bands and often used to carry Rhine wine to other countries. As a result, there are many amphorae sherds at sites in Britain, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia. The Badorf amphorae were probably made only until the 11th century, but similar forms were by then being produced in the new pottery centers at Andenne and Limburg.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Remedellian CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A village and cemetery in Lombardy, Italy of the Chalcolithic Remedello culture of the Po valley and Veneto in the 3rd millennium BC. Its famous cemetery of 117 tombs is the type site of a Copper Age culture. Skeletons were crouched in trench graves, accompanied by bifacially flaked fling daggers, triangularcopper daggers; halberds, axes, and awls in copper, and barbed-and-tanged flint arrowheads. Pottery was scarce and variable. Sherds of beakers have been found associated with this material with a date c 2500 BC.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: The portion of a vessel closest to its orifice and generally near the top of the vessel, or a sherd from this portion.
Salinas La Blanca
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Early Formative village site on the left bank of the Narajo River near Ocos, Guatemala. The principal features of the site are two low house-mounds constructed of clay and householddebris and dating to 1000-850 BC. A typical household cluster consisted of the house and outdoor hearth, a number of 'borrow pits' (dug to obtain clay) and a sherd-and-shell midden. Large numbers of primitive corn cobs indicate some farming.
Scoglio del Tonno
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Prehistoric site on a promontory projecting into the harbor of Taranto in Puglie, Italy, where a Middle and Late Bronze Age settlement existed. It was first occupied during the Late Neolithic by people suing Serra D'Alto Ware. It was then abandoned but resettled in the mid-2nd millennium BC by a community of the Apennine Bronze Age culture. A great wealth of material of the 14th-12th centuries BC has been found, including much bronzework and sherds of Late Helladic III pottery, which indicate contact with Mycenaean traders c 1300 BC. After the collapse of the Mycenaean world, Scoglio del Tonno continued to exist and trade with the Greek world It survived until the foundation of the Greek colony of Taras in 706 BC. Scoglio del Tonno was destroyed, after excavation, when the port was extended in 1899.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Tell site in the Seistan district of eastern Iran, close to the Afghan and Pakistan borders, which was the site of a vast urban center of the late 4th-early 2nd millennium BC. As well as abundant structural remains, enormous numbers of finds have been excavated -- thousands of potsherds and stone tools, clay figurines, and animal bones. The wealth of Shahr-i Sokhta was due at least in part to its role in the trade in lapis lazuli between its source in north Afghanistan and the markets of Mesopotamia and Egypt. An industrial area produced thousands of unfinished lapis lazuli beads, as well as flint drills and other tools used in their manufacture. Shahr-i Sokhta also has a huge cemetery, estimated to have contained 200,000 burials. In the early 2nd millennium BC, the course of the Helmand River, on which the city depended, changed; this led to the decline and abandonment of the settlement. The site is still important for understanding the urbanization, production and subsistence techniques, and complex societies of Bronze Age Iran and Afghanistan.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sherd; potsherd CATEGORY: ceramics; artifact DEFINITION: Any potteryfragment -- piece of broken pot or other earthenware item -- that has archaeological significance. Often abbreviated to sherd, potsherds are an invaluable part of the archaeological record because they are well-preserved. The analysis of ceramic changes recorded in potsherds has become one of the primary techniques used by archaeologists in assigning components and phases to times and cultures.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site west of the Air Mountains in the Tamesna of Niger, Africa, where pottery occurs in one of its earliest known Saharan contexts c 7300 BC. The sherds were found in association with barbed boneharpoon heads. Also, bone harpoons associated with lucustrine fauna have been dated to c 9400 bp.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site on the northwest coast of Cornwall, England, with the ruins of a Norman castle stretching across the isthmus. It was built on the site of a Celtic monastery that appears to have existed from c 350-850 AD. Legend has it that King Arthur was born there. The earls of Cornwall occupied the castle in Norman times and built the chapel. Excavations have revealed several complexes of dry-stone buildings and there are large quantities of sub-Roman imported sherds of Mediterranean origin.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Umguzan CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Cave site in the Matopo Hills of southwestern Zimbabwe with several layers of archaeological deposits preserving microlithic artifacts and sherds attributed to Bambata ware. The sequence includes Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age assemblages and is also the name of a Middle Stone Age industry postdating 30,000 BP. This horizon contained backed microliths associated with diminutive implements and ostrich eggshell beads.
CATEGORY: culture; site DEFINITION: Early Formativeperiodsite on Ecuador's coast, and the name of a Formativeperiodculture c 3200 BC. The type-site flourished beginning sometime before 3800 BC and lasting until c 1400 BC. Its pottery is among the oldest in the New World. Radiocarbon dates, stratification of midden deposits, and considerable stylistic variation in the highly distinctive ceramiccomplex have facilitated the construction of a chronology. The periods are: A: 3200-2300 BC; B: 2300-2000 BC; C: 2000-1500 BC and D: 1500-1400 BC. Characteristically, ceramics have a gray body, are smoothly polished and decorated with incision, rocker stamping, and appliqué. Decoration is typically only on the upper part of the vessel and all vessels are utilitarian rather than ritual. Periods C and D contained some traded sherds from Machalilla. Figurines in stone and ceramic appear after Period B with the ceramics usually portraying stylized nude females often with a distinctive 'page boy' hairstyle. Valdivia sites consist of coastal shell mounds left by fishermen and shellfish collectors, and also villages (Real Alto) of maize farmers.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Neolithic long barrow, the largest of the Severn-Cotswold group of megalithic tombs, in Wiltshire, England, of c 3500 BC. The tomb has two pairs of transepts and a terminal chamber; the entrance opens from a crescent-shaped forecourt blocked by a straight facade of sarsen slabs. The burial was of 46 disarticulated inhumations and the chambers were filled with a mixture of soil, charcoal, sherds of Peterborough ware, and groovedware and beaker fragments. That material has a date of 2500/2000 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Windmill Hill culture CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Neolithic causewayed camp north of Avebury, Wiltshire, England, the type site of the culture of the same name. The camp of c 3350 BC has three ditch circuits which are part of the Aveburycomplex of Neolithicritual monuments. Windmill Hill ware sensu stricto (decorated with grooves and pits), was closely followed by the oldest (Ebbsfleet) variant of Peterborough ware -- 3330 +/- 150. More recent levels have Peterborough styles, groovedware, and beaker sherds. An earthen long barrow has a radiocarbon date of 4030 +/- 150 and there is a cemetery of Bronze Age round barrows. This culture and that of Peterborough were the two first main food-growing and cattle-raising peoples. Stone axes, coarse scrapers, and pressure-flaked leaf-shaped arrowheads were used. They raised pigs, cattle, goats, and had dogs for herding; cereals were grown. The pottery is now divided into separate traditions (Grimston-Lyles Hill, Hembury, Abingdon), and the rest of the cultural content, causewayed camps, long barrows, leaf-shaped arrowheads and polished flint or other stone axes, is now regarded as simply 'British Neolithic'. The culture existed until c 2500 BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Large wood circle, a sacred monument just northeast of Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England, and adjacent to Durrington Walls. It consists of a henge-typeearthwork with a wooden structure inside. A central grave was surrounded in turn by six egg-shaped concentric rings of postholes, a ditch, and a bank with a single entrance. The long axis of the oval pointed to the midsummer sunrise; on this axis in the center of the shrine was found buried the skeleton of a three-year-old child, a ritualsacrifice. The pottery was a variant of the groovedwarestyle and Beaker sherds were also found. The monument has a radiocarbon date of c 2230-1800 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Chang-chia-p'o CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Western Zhou / Chousite near the Feng River, southwest of Xi'an, China. Extensive remains may be connected with the Zhou capitals Feng and Hao. Early finds include tombs similar in construction to Shang tombs, some with human sacrifices; chariot burials; bones used in divination, mostly uninscribed; and sherds of glazed stoneware. A bronzehoard, many inscribed, range in date over most of the Western Zhouperiod.