CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: An object acquired by a museum or collector as a part of a permanent collection; also, the act of processing and recording an addition to a permanent collection.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: An accounting used in the lab after artifacts and ecofacts are initially processed and providing the numbers with which artifacts and ecofacts are marked for storage. Its records describe and record what was found during an archaeological investigation and it is the primary record for all materials after excavation.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The number assigned to an archaeological collection that identifies its origin; part of the catalog number.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Darius the Great CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: The king of Persia from 522-486 BC, one of the greatest rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty, who was known for his great building projects and his administrative abilities. Darius extended his kingdom to India and Thrace and attempted several times to conquer Greece; his fleet was destroyed by a storm in 492, and the Athenians defeated his army at Marathon in 490. The details of his accession, which extinguished the rule of the senior branch of his family, are clouded by the fact that we have only his side of the story, notably in his great rockinscription at Behistun. His change of the royal capital from Pasargadae to Persepolis was important in his accession. His tomb survives, carved in the cliff face at Naqsh-i-Rustam, near Persepolis.
Merenptah (d. 1204 BC?)
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Meneptah, Merenptah CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: The 13th son of his long-lived father, Ramesses II, Merneptah was nearing 60 years of age at his accession in about 1213. Because of the extraordinary length of the reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC), at least twelve of his sons died before him, including Khaemwaset, who was for several years the appointed heir. Early in Merneptah's reign, his troops had to suppress a revolt in Palestine by the cities of Ashqelon, Gezer, and Yenoam. Merneptah's greatest challenge, however, came from the Libyans who were encroaching on Egyptian lands. About 1209, Merneptah learned that some Sea Peoples were roving the Middle East, had joined and armed the Libyans, and with them were conspiring to attack Memphis and Heliopolis. He is responsible for the great victory over the Libyans and Sea Peoples, in which they lost nearly 9,400 men. Merneptah ordered the carving of four great commemorative texts in celebration. One of these, the famous Israel Stela refers to the suppression of the revolt in Palestine. It contains the earliest-known reference to Israel, which Merneptah counted among the peoples that he defeated. Hebrew scholars suggest that the circumstances agree approximately with the period noted in biblical books from late Exodus to Judges. A fragmentary stela from the Sudan also suggests that the king quelled a rebellion in Lower Nubia, probably after his Palestinian exploits.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: The period of large-scale movement of peoples in western Europe during the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries AD -- including the Anglo-Saxonsettlement of England. These movements are associated with the collapse of the Roman empire. Barbarians from beyond the Roman frontiers settled within many of the former provinces. The Migration Period is often extended to cover period from 3rd century AD to accession of Charlemagne in 800 AD.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The first dynastic capital of the Achaemenian Empire, situated northeast of Persepolis in modern southwestern Iran. Traditionally, Cyrus II the Great (reigned c 559- 529 BC) chose the site because it lay near the scene of his victory over Astyages the Mede (550 BC). The buildings are scattered over a wide area; they include two palaces, a gatehouse and a square stone tower, as well as a religious area with a large firealtar. Trilingual inscriptions in Elamite, Babylonian (Akkadian), and Old Persian, all in the cuneiformscript, occur on the palaces and gatehouse. Southwest of the palaces is the tomb of Cyrus, almost intact: an impressive rectangular stone chamber with a gabled roof, set on a high stepped plinth. At the extreme southern edge of the site, an impressive rock-cut road or canal indicates the course of the ancient highway that once linked Pasargadae with Persepolis. After the accession of Darius I the Great (522 BC), Persepolis replaced Pasargadae as the dynastic home.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: throne name CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: An Egyptian king's first cartouche name, which he adopted on his accession. It is a statement about the god Re, later with additional epithets, e.g. Menkheprure (Tuthmosis IV) Re is enduring of manifestations". It is also the term for the given name or forename of a Roman personal name; the family name was the nomen."
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A year reckoned from the date or anniversary of a monarch's accession to the throne, e.g. in his eighth regnal year". At times documents were dated by a king's regnal year. Before the time of Alexander the Great the first regnal year was the new year following the king's accession."