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SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Cherchel, Caesarea Palaestinae, Caesarea Maritima, Straton's Tower, Strato's Tower
DEFINITION: An ancient port and administrative city of Palestine on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Israel. It is often called Caesarea Palaestinae or Caesarea Maritima to distinguish it from Caesarea Philippi. It was originally an ancient Phoenician settlement known as Straton's (Strato's Tower) and was rebuilt and enlarged by Herod the Great around 22-10 BC, who renamed it for his patron, Caesar Augustus. Herod also rebuilt the harbor, which traded with his newly built city at Sebaste (Augusta) of ancient Samaria. There were Hellenistic-Roman public buildings and an aqueduct. After Herod died, it became the capital of the Roman province of Judaea. An inscription naming Pontius Pilate is one of the best-known from the site. The city became the capital of the Roman province of Judaea in AD 6. Jewish revolts and later Byzantine and Arab rule cause the city's decline.
Maes Howe
DEFINITION: A magnificent passage grave in Orkney, Scotland, roofed by corbeling and covered by a circular cairn surrounded by a ring ditch. Its unusual plan is a squared burial chamber with three rectangular cells opening from it through doorways placed about a meter above the level of the chamber floor. Nothing was found inside the tomb, but scratched on the wall is a 12th-century AD inscription in runes stating that the grave was looted by Vikings who carried off a great treasure. However, radiocarbon dates average c 2700 BC.
Paestan pottery
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: South Italian pottery made at Paestum, some signed by the craftsmen, starting in the mid-4th century BC.
DEFINITION: A Greek coastal colony founded in Lucania, southwest Italy, c 600 BC. It is known for three almost complete Doric temples of the 6th and 5th centuries BC, a forum (3rd century BC), amphitheater, shrine, temple of Peace, and a number of smaller temples. The temples were dedicated to Argive Hera, Poseidon, and Athena. There is some occupational evidence for both Palaeolithic and Neolithic, and there is a Copper Age necropolis at Contrada Gaudo, just north of the classical town. Traditional sources ascribe the Greek colony to Sybaris, and proto-Corinthian pottery suggests the date of 600 BC. Some of the local tombs were decorated with murals; the famous 'Tomb of the Divers' with 'Etruscan'-style painted decoration is from the 5th century BC. After many years' resistance the city came under the domination of the Lucanians sometime before 400 BC, after which its name was changed to Paestum. Alexander, the king of Epirus, defeated the Lucanians at Paestum about 332 BC, but the city remained Lucanian until 273, when it came under Roman rule and a Latin colony was founded there. Paestum was still prosperous during the early years of the Roman Empire, but the gradual silting up of the mouth of the Silarus River eventually created a malarial swamp, and Paestum was finally deserted after being sacked by Muslim raiders in 871 AD. The abandoned site's remains were rediscovered in the 18th century.
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: Latin term of antiquity used to denote brass, bronze, copper, or any alloy of these, as aes candidum, a brass alloyed with silver.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An object to point at words whilst reading
caesium magnetometer
DEFINITION: A highly sensitive portable magnetometer that can detect minute magnetic variations, down to about one millionth of the earth's magnetic field.
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: In Greco-Roman times, an open-air courtyard surrounded by a colonnade (or porticos) and used for wrestling, gymnastics, and military training. This building consisted of a large central sand-covered courtyard surrounded by changing rooms and washrooms. It is from the Greek word for 'area of wrestling' or 'wrestling school'; it was often part of a gymnasium complex which would include a stadium. It also might be connected to thermae.

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