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aging
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Storing prepared ceramic material (as a wet plastic clay body) to improve its working properties by thorough wetting of particles, slow compression, bacterial action (souring), and other processes
aging of skeletal material
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The age at death may be estimated from ancient skeletal material in a number of ways. (1) Epiphyseal fusion. A growing bone consists of a central part (diaphysis) and the ends (ephiyses). At adulthood, the epiphyses fuse to the diaphysis and the average at which this occurs is known for man and most domestic animals. The stage of epiphyseal fusion may therefore be used as a guide to the age at death. (2) Dental eruption. The average age for each stage of the eruption of teeth in man and most domestic animals is well-established. The state of dental eruption may therefore be used to estimate the age at death. (3) Dental attrition. Given a standard diet, teeth wear roughly at the same rate and tables of rate of wear have been established for man. For other animals, this method must be calibrated by dental eruption. (4) Dental microstructure. The counting of incremental structures in teeth may allow estimation of age at death. (5) Pubic symphysis. In man, the joint surfaces of the pubic symphysis change progressively with age and can be used to determine the age of men at death. (6) Antlers. In deer, the development of antlers is roughly related to age.
foraging system
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The movement of people to search for resources.
optimal foraging theory
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The theory that an animal's efficient foraging behavior should maximize an animal's net rate of food intake. It is a theoretical perspective used in evolutionary biology that attempts to develop a set of models to apply to a broad range of animal species based on theories of optimal net rates of energy gain.

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