CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A block, usually of iron, upon which objects are shaped and hammered e.g. in smithing.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A stone on which other stones or materials (such as food) are placed and crushed with a stone tool.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: anvil-flaking CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A method of making chipped stone tools that involves striking a stone repeatedly against a static boulder used as an anvil
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: paddle-and-anvil technique, paddle and anvil CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A pottery-making method in which a wooden paddle and a stone or ceramic disk are used to smooth and shape a coiled pot. The paddle was used to strike the exterior surface of the vessel as a convexstone or clayanvil was held against the corresponding interior surface.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: hammer-and-anvil technique, paddling CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A technique to thin and even out the walls of coil- or slab-built vessels after they have partially hardened to leather" hardness to improve the bonding between coils or add surface texture. One holds an anvil or fist inside the vessel while the outside is struck repeatedly with a paddle which can be wrapped with cord or fabric to add texture to the vessel surface."
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A type of percussion that involves the placement of raw material (usually small rounded or oval cobbles) on an anvil stone and striking it from the top.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A flat-faced smooth stone used as a small anvil in metalworking. The earliest cushion stones from northern Europe are those from Beaker graves
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: free-hand percussion CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A technique used in the manufacture of chipped-stone artifacts in which flakes are produced by striking a core with another stone, a hammerstone, or by striking the core against a fixed stone or anvil in order to dislodge a flake. The method is less precise in its results than indirect percussion.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: In metalworking, the heating of a metal to soften it and then working it by hammering. It is a process used for the working of iron and steel after smelting. Though copper and other metals can be worked cold" with occasional annealing this is not a suitable procedure for iron and steel. Forging involves the heating of the bloom to red heat and hammering. This would be carried out on a flat anvil with a hammer to remove impurities and the remains of slag. The resulting bars of iron could then be thinned down and hammered into shape again continuously heating the iron and hammering while red-hot. During the forging processiron can be bent flanges or other features introduced or sheet metal produced."
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A collection of Bronze Age metalwork deposited together as a hoard but which comprises the tools, equipment, and stock-in-trade of a bronze-worker. In addition to scrap metal and ingots there are typically moulds, punches, hammers, sets, gouges, an anvil, and a polishing stone.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A prehistorictradition of southern Arizona which began as a sedentary farming culture around 300 BC and existed until 1400/1450 AD. It was a cultural unit within the Cochise subculture and it had large villages, canal irrigation, and pottery-making. The finest craft products were shelljewelry and objects of carved stone. Diagnostic traits include small villages of shallow, oblong pit-houses with no formalized community plan, cremation of the dead, plain grey or brown paddle and anvil smoothed pottery (or sometimes painted red on buff). The tradition is divided into: Pioneer (150-550 AD), Colonial (550-900 AD), Sedentary (900-1100 AD), Classic (1100-1450 AD), and Post-Classic (1450-1700 AD). Between 550-1200 AD, renewed Mexican contacts brought foreign elements to the Hohokam: courts for the ball-game, platform mounds, new types of maize, slab metates, mosaic mirrors, exotic symbolism from Mexican religion, and the use of copper bells. From about 1100, certain groups began to construct pueblos under Anasazi influence. After 1400/1450, the Hohokam territory along the Gila and Salt Rivers seems to have been partially abandoned. Their cultural heirs are the Pima and Papago Indians. Snaketown is an important Hohokamsite.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: percussion method, percussion flaking CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: Any of the methods used to strike a flake from a core in the making of stone tools; the reduction of a stonecore by hitting it with a hammerstone or bone. Direct percussion is hitting a core with a hammer. Indirect percussion uses a punch between the core and the hammer. Anvil percussion (block on block) is the striking of a core against a fixed hardstone anvil. Bipolar percussion involves resting the core on an anvil and striking it with a hammer, making a flake with a bulb of percussion on each end.