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Breton arrowhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of well-made barbed and tinged arrowhead, highly symmetrical in form, with graceful slightly concave or convex sides and flared barbs. The tang is the same length as the barbs. Characteristic of the early Bronze Age in northern France and southern Britain.
Bush Barrow
DEFINITION: The site of a rich grave under a barrow that belonged to the Wessex Culture of southern England. The single male inhumation included a bronze axe, two bronze daggers, a stone macehead.
Carrowkeel ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of later Neolithic pottery found in Ireland during the 3rd millennium BC, named after material recovered from the passage graves at Carrowkeel in Co. Sligo, Ireland. The fabric of Carrowkeel ware is generally rather thick, coarse, and heavily gritted. The forms comprise mainly open round-bottomed bowls and hemispherical cups. Decoration is extensively applied, often all over the outer surface of the vessel and over the rim, and is typically ?stab and drag' or impressed. Some of motifs used resemble PASSAGE GRAVE ART.
DEFINITION: A cemetery site in Sligo, Ireland, with megalithic tombs consisting of circular boulder kerbs and boulder-built chambers. The radiocarbon date is c 4500 BC, which would make these the earliest chambered tombs of Ireland.
DEFINITION: The site of twin monasteries which were important in the Middle Anglo-Saxon period in England. One was the home of the Venerable Bede. Both monasteries suffered seriously during the Viking raids of the 9th century. At Jarrow, there was evidence for glassmaking and other crafts. The earliest colored window glass known in Europe comes from these excavations, and bears out Bede's statement that Benedict Biscop brought glaziers from Gaul to work on his churches.
Kuyavian long barrow
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: Earthen long barrows of the Funnel Beaker culture in northern Poland from c 3000 BC. The are usually surrounded by a kerb of large boulders and sometimes megalithic. They have a trapezoidal plan, normally have single primary burials, and are related to the Hunebeds of northern Germany and Holland.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A weapon consisting of a stick with a sharp pointed head, designed to be shot from a bow
arrow straightener
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A stone with a regular, straight groove on one face. It is thought to have been used to smooth wooden shafts of arrows, so the name is misleading.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: projectile point, arrow-head
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A small object of bone, metal, or stone that has been formed as the pointed end of an arrow for penetration and is often found at sites of prehistoric peoples. The earliest known are Solutrean points of the Upper Palaeolithic. Arrowheads are often the only evidence of archery since the arrow shaft and bow rarely survive. The term projectile point is generally preferable because it avoids an inference regarding the method of hafting and propulsion. Most often, arrowheads were placed in a slot in the shaft, tied, then fixed with resin.
barbed and tanged arrowhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Triangular-shaped flint arrowheads of the later Neolithic and early Bronze Age in Europe. Distinctive in having a short rectangular tang on the base opposite the point, symmetrically set either side of which is a barb. The tang was used to secure the arrow tip to its shaft and usually projects slightly below the ends of the barbs.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: burial mound; tumulus; burial cairn
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A round or elongated mound of earth or stones used in early times to cover one or more burials; a grave mound. The mound is often surrounded by a ditch, and the burials may be contained within a cist, mortuary enclosure, mortuary house, or chamber tomb. There are two types, the long (elongated) and the round barrow (also known as tumuli). The former were built in the Late Stone Age, the latter in the Bronze Age, though burial under a round mound was occasionally practiced during the Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Viking periods.. The long barrow was a tribal or family burial vault built of stone slabs, some weighing many tons, and covered with earth or stones. The large, round barrows were often communal. They are often found in prehistoric sites in Britain - earthen (or unchambered) long barrows from the Early and Middle Neolithic (Windmill Hill Culture). Other long barrows were constructed over megalithic tombs of gallery grave types. Most of the British round barrows incorporate circles of stakes. Bowl barrows --- simple round mounds, often surrounded by a ditch --- were the most common form, used throughout the Bronze Age and sporadically also in the Iron Age. The Wessex Culture of the southern English Early Bronze Age was characterized by special types of barrows: bell, disk, saucer, and pond barrows. Bell barrows have relatively small mounds and a berm or gap between the mound and the ditch; disk barrows are very small mounds in the center of a circular open space, surrounded by a ditch; saucer barrows are low disk-like mounds occupying the entire space up to the ditch; while the oddly named pond barrows are not mounds at all, but circular dish-shaped enclosures surrounded by an external bank. The related term 'cairn' is used to describe a mound constructed exclusively of stone. Barrow burials occur also in Roman and post-Roman times: one of the most famous of all barrows in Britain is that covering the Anglo-Saxon boat burial at Sutton Hoo.
bow and arrow
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Weapon consisting of two parts; the bow is made of a strip of flexible material, such as wood, with a cord linking the two ends of the strip to form a tension from which is propelled the arrow; the arrow is a straight shaft with a sharp point on one end and usually with feathers attached to the other end
chisel-ended arrowhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of arrow tip, usually of flint or stone, that has a sharp straight cutting edge at right angles to the axis of the arrow shaft, rather than a point. Such arrowheads are believed to have been used for shooting birds.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A frame set with teeth used to drag over ploughed fields to break down the earth clods etc.
leaf arrowhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A leaf or diamond-shaped arrowhead with shallow retouching at the edges.
long barrow
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: long-barrow, portal tomb, court tomb
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: An elongated mound covering a burial chamber, typical of the Early and Mid-Neolithic periods in Europe. Barrows of the Neolithic Period were long and contained the various members of a family or clan. In southern England, the burial chamber consists of a megalithic tomb.
petit-tranchet derivative arrowhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Diverse series of later Neolithic flint arrowhead forms found in Britain and believed to derive from the development of petit-tranchet arrowhead forms. The group was defined and classified in 1934 by Grahame Clarke and includes a range of triangular and trapezoidal pieces; some were perhaps for use in hunting birds.
transverse arrowhead
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: petit-tranchet arrowhead
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Style of flint or stone projectile tip of trapezoidal outline in which the wider straight end forms the leading edge. Typical of the later Mesolithic in northern Europe.

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