(View exact match)barterCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A type of direct exchange of different goods, not using any sort of currency, in which each party tries to get an advantage, however slight.
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DEFINITION: The site of a Swahili city-state apparently established in the 9th century and distinguished for its seawalls of coral blocks, each of which weighs up to a ton. Located in the Lamu Archipelago off the coast of Kenya, it had numerous stone-built (and wattle-and-daub) houses. Trade, which seems to have been by barter, was considerable, with the main export probably of ivory. Manda had close trading connections with the Persian Gulf - Siraf in particular. It imported large quantities of Islamic pottery and, in the 9th and 10th centuries, Chinese porcelain. There is evidence of a considerable iron-smelting industry at Manda.PenmaenmawrCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic stone-ax-making site in England, with the remains of a Bronze Age stone circle located on the crest of a hill above the town. The axes were bartered over a large area in England.exchangeSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: directional trade; exchange system
DEFINITION: A system which promotes the transfer of goods and services between people, either individuals or societies. The term 'trade' may be used to mean the same, but it often refers more specifically to the formalized economic relationships of modern societies. Three different forms of exchange can be found: reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange. There are also different spatial patterns of traded items, which can reveal the mode of exchange. In 'down-the-line' exchange, a commodity is passed successively from one group to another even further away from its source. The pattern will show a distinct decline in the quantity of the item as distance from the source increases; the higher the value of the item, the further it will reach. In 'directional exchange', where a commodity is traded directly from its source to a distant point without any intermediate exchange, the pattern of decreasing quantities with increasing distance will be distorted with a local concentration. Primitive forms of exchange include barter, gift exchange, potlatch, and silent trade. Any interaction where something passes between people - goods, information, gifts, money, etc.sphere of exchangeCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: In non-market societies, the prestige valuables and ordinary commodities were often exchanged separately. Valuables were exchanged for valuables in prestige transactions. Commodities, however, were exchanged for commodities unceremoniously, in mutually profitable barter transactions.