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Abingdon
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Abingdon ware
CATEGORY: site; artifact
DEFINITION: The type site for a Neolithic pottery c. 3900-3200 BC, found in a causewayed camp about 15 km south of Oxford, England. The pottery is fairly heavy and formed into round-bottomed bowls with frequent-stroke decoration and some having handles.
Binford, Lewis R. (1931-2011)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: An influential contemporary Americanist archaeologist, considered by many to be the father of the new archaeology. His books include "In Pursuit of the Past" (1983) "Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths" (1981) "An Archaeological Perspective" (1972) and "New Perspectives in Archaeology" (1968).
Dong Zuobin (1895-1963)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: Chinese archaeologist who specialized in oracle bone inscriptions from the Shang dynasty (1400-1100/1027 BC). He tried to reconstruct the bones' context and establish criteria for determining fakes. He found 10,000 complete or fragmentary oracle bones.
Hajjar bin Humeid
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A site of pre-Islamic occupation in southwest Arabia with a number of strata and a ceramic sequence from the 1st millennium BC through the mid-1st millennium AD.
Hoabinhian
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hoabinh
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A little-known Mesolithic or Neolithic culture (early-to-mid-Holocene stone tool industry) of southeast Asia (type site is Hoa Binh, Vietnam) dating from 10,000-2000 BC. There are many chipped, pecked, and polished stone axes found in piles of shells. Its importance lies in its position between the earliest centers of rice growing in India and China, and in the part it most have played in diffusing the knowledge of agriculture into Indonesia and the Pacific. The Neolithic assemblages have pottery and ground stone tools for several millennia after 6000 BC. It is best described as a techno-complex with successive cultural accretions, the Hoabinhian cannot be regarded as an archaeological culture of chronological horizon. The majority of Hoabinhian sites found to date are in rock shelters and coastal shell middens. The three recognized phases are: archaic with unifacially worked pebble tools, intermediate with smaller pebble tools and bifacial working and edge-grinding, and late characterized by some pottery, smaller scrapers, grinding stones, knives, piercers, polished stone tools, and shell artifacts.
Leubingen
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: An early Bronze Age chieftain's burial of the Unetice culture of Saxony, Germany. It consisted of a lean-to wooden mortuary chamber under a stone cairn, itself covered by a barrow. Inside was the burial of an extended elderly male and, placed at right angles across him, a second body, of an adolescent, perhaps female. Grave goods included a series of gold ornaments (pins, spirals, hair-rings, beads, earrings, and an arm-ring), bronze daggers, axes, halberds, and chisels; stone tools, and pottery.
Lumbini
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A grove near the southern border of modern-day Nepal, India, where, according to Buddhist legend, Queen Maha Maya stood and gave birth to the future Buddha. Archaeological finds include Northern Black-Polished Ware, which was in use during the period of the Buddha's lifetime. In c 249 BC the emperor Asoka made a pilgrimage to Lumbini and set up a commemorative pillar which still survives. It is still a popular Buddhist pilgrimage place.
Straubing
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Straubing group
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Early Bronze Age regional variant of the Unetice culture in Lower Bavaria, Germany. It is characterized by flat inhumation cemeteries with grave goods such as simple bronze daggers, awls, torcs, cones of coiled wire, and amber beads. It is dated to the early 2nd millennium BC.
bin
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: corner bin
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: An above-ground compartment formed by walling off a portion of a structure or courtyard other than a corner. Common construction materials and methods include vertical slabs and adobe, jacal, and coursed masonry.
binder
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A substance, usually organic, added to a clay or glaze to increase its green strength
binomial distribution
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A discrete probability distribution that models a series of n trials with only two possible (and mutually exclusive) outcomes at each trial, as with dichotomous measurements.
bobbin
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An object on which thread or yarn is wound or hooked.
combing
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A finishing technique in ceramics manufacture whereby a tool with multiple teeth or prongs is dragged along the surface of the fabric to leave multiple, nearly parallel incisions, either straight or wavy.
mealing bin
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A small adobe- or stone-lined pit in which was placed a metate, used for grinding maize.
probing
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The use of any of several instruments to explore beneath the ground for archaeological deposits.
ribbing
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A rib-like structure or pattern

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