CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A container with a flat base and sides and usually a lid
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A brick of four terra cotta tiles which were joined together to conduct the furnace-heated air of a Roman (hypocaust) heating system. The tiles were joined at the edges and open at the top and the bottom. The air was directed through them up the walls to escape at the eaves. The exposed faces of the box-flue tiles were often decorated in relief to provide a key for the wall plaster which normally covered them.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: box flue tile CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A baked claytile shaped like a rectangular box, open at both ends; often used for flues and occasionally for voussoirs.
CATEGORY: measure DEFINITION: A type of graph used in Exploratory Data Analysis that displays the median and inter-quartile range in a box, with points to represent all the observations falling in the upper and lower quartiles.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A shallow vessel in color-coated ware ( Nene Valley Ware) with a fitting lid of Roman date. Usually both box and lid were rouletted.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: The combustion chamber of a kiln, typically beneath the ware chamber
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A box containing tinder, any dry inflammable material, usually also contains flint and steel for lighting fires.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: An excavation technique developed by Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler from the work of General Pitt-Rivers. It involved the retaining of intact balks of earth between excavationgrid squares so that different stratigraphic layers could be correlated across the site in the vertical profiles.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A large bottle, generally protected by a basket or box, usually used for containing corrosive liquids, etc.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A village in western France near the Atlantic coast that is the site of more than 3,000 prehistoricstone monuments of the alignmenttype. These menhirs are arranged in three groups of 10-13 parallel rows, which ended at semicircles or rectangles of standing stones. The single stone menhirs and multistone dolmens were made from local granite and are worn by time and weather and covered in white lichen. The area also has a series of long cairns of mid-Neolithic to Early Bronze Age which covers funerary chambers and secondary cists. The grave goods included polished axes of rare stones such as jadeite and fibrolite, stone boxes containing charcoal, cattle bones, and pottery. The area was clearly an important ritual center, venerated by the Bretons until fairly recent times, and adopted by the Romans for religious purposes. Christians added crosses and other symbols to the stones. In 1874, James Miln uncovered the remains of a Gallo-Roman villa one mile east of the village. The Musée Miln-Le Rouzic in Carnac has an important collection of artifacts.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Jun CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A Chinese stoneware of the Northern Sung period (960-1126 AD) with a pale blue opalescent or translucentgreenglaze, at the kilns near Lin-ju-hsien and at Kung-hsien in Honan province in China. Another well-known class has a red or flambé glaze and consists of flowerpots, bulb bowls, elegant shallow dishes, waterpots, and small boxes.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sarcophagus CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Any box or chest, usually rectangular or anthropoid in shape, in which a corpse or mummy is enclosed for burial. Clay, stone, metal, and wood are among the materials used. Primitive wooden coffins, formed of a tree trunk split down and hollowed out, are still in use among some aboriginal peoples. The term 'sarcophagus' is used only for the stone outer container which encases one or more coffins. From the Latin word for basket" 'cophinus'."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cist, cist grave CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A box-shaped burialstructure made of stone slabs (especially slate, schist, or granite) set on edge. Cysts may be either sunk below ground level or built on the land surface, in which case they are covered by a protective barrow. The body, in a crouched position, was buried, or an urn, containing cremation ashes, and funerary furniture were placed and buried. The name comes from the Greek word 'kiste', meaning chest or box.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: An installation for firingpottery with a firebox, in which the fuel burns beside the chamber in which the pots are fired and separated from it by a bagwall" so that hot gas from the fire must rise over the bagwall and then pass down through the chamber before exiting through a chimney flue on the other side. It achieves high temperatures and better control over atmosphere."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Bronze Age burial in east Jutland, Denmark in an oak tree trunk coffin under a circular tumulus. The cremated bones of a child were also in the coffin with a woman's body, clothing, and bronze ornaments preserved by waterlogged conditions. She was wearing a woolen jacket and skirt and was covered by an ox-hideshroud; bronze bracelets and a bronzebelt disc also survived. The grave also contained a birch-bark box containing an awl and a hairnet.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An early Saxoncemetery in Kent, used between the early 6th and mid-7th centuries. The large inhumationcemetery has produced an impressive collection of material including a pattern-welded sword, garnet-inlaid bird brooches made in Kent, radiate brooches from the continent, and a richly decorated square-headed brooch. Wooden boxes with bronze binding, strings of beads, corroded buckets, and bone objects of the period were also found. Some of the female burials seem to have been interred alive.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Open-ended, box-shaped tile built into the thickness of the walls of a room heated by hypocaust
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: grid system, grid method, box system, grid planning CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The practice of dividing an archaeological site into squares for ease of recording features and objects during excavation. The term also refers to the two-dimensional intersecting network defining the squares in which archaeologists dig; usually set out with strings, stakes, and a transit. Often a square trench will be cut within each grid square, separated by a balk from each neighboring trench. Each square is suitable for excavation by two or three people. Advantages of the method are in the creation of a number of readily available sections on the site, the ease of spoil removal (along the balk), and the control which can be exercised over excavators. On open sites with little stratigraphy above the rock surface, the method is often unnecessary. The balks in the grid method may also obscure many of the important stratigraphical relationships, or make impossible the recognition of structures. This technique allows the fast recording of very large areas, but is not as accurate as triangulation for the pinpointing of small objects and features. The use of grid planning and triangulation together often satisfies most of the combined needs of speed and accuracy.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A peat bog on the Danish island of Als where a votive deposit with a boat or war canoe was deposited in c 200 BC (pre-Roman Iron Age). With the boat were many shields, spears, and swords. The boat was plank-built, sewn together without the use of nails, with room for about 50 oarsmen. The bow and stern were upturned and had ramlike projections. There were also everyday items such as bowls, boxes, and smith's tools.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A Roman heating system in which a floor of tile and concrete, sometimes with mosaic, was supported on low tiled pillars to allow the hot air from a furnace to circulate beneath it. Warm air, heated in an outside stokehole, circulated under the raised floor and also often entered room through vents above floor level. The gases escaped up box flue tiles at intervals around the walls, thus also warming them. This heating system in baths (thermae) and houses gave a central-heating effect. Examples are found from about 100 BC onward.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: plural larnakes CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A Minoan-Mycenaean clay or terra-cotta coffin. This kind of coffin, resembling a rectangular wooden chest, enjoyed a brief popularity in the eastern Greek region c 530-460 BC. The sarcophagus was often crudely painted on the sides with funerary or religious scenes. 'Clazomenian' examples were painted in imitation of contemporary vase styles. The term was also used for a closed box, seen in a royal tomb at Vergina, and in art. A third use of the term was for a bathtub made of a fabric containing straw.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Chinese term for lacquered wooden box in which toilet necessities or food such as cooked cereals are kept.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ma-wang-tui CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site in Hunan province, China, near Chang-Sha (Changsha City), of three Early Han-dynasty tombs with features of both shaft and mounded tombs. Tomb No. 2 belonged to the first marquis of Dai (d. 186 BC), a high official of the Han administration. Nos. 3 and 1 are apparently the tombs of his son (d. 168 BC) and wife (d. shortly after 168 BC). In construction and contents the three tombs are far different from Han princely burials in the north and reflect the lingering traditions and material culture of the Chu kingdom, which had fallen to Qin less than a century earlier. Each tomb takes the form of a massive compartmented timber box at the bottom of a deep stepped shaft; the shaft was filled in with rammed earth and a mound was raised over it. The contents of Tomb No. 1 were very well preserved: the body of the wife of the marquis, wrapped in silk and laid inside four richly decorated nested coffins. The 180 dishes, toilet boxes, and other lacquer articles, silk clothing, offerings of food, musical instruments, small wooden figures of servants and musicians, and a complete inventory of the grave goods written on bamboo slips depict extreme wealth. Tomb 3 was furnished in the same fashion as Tomb 1, but contained more silk paintings, three rare musical instruments, and an extraordinary collection of manuscripts, some on silk and some on bamboo slips, including some of the earliest known maps from China, treatises on medicine and astronomy, comet charts, and important literary texts (the Daoist/Taoist classic Dao De jing" ("Tao te ching") the "Yi jing" ("Book of Changes")) The contents of Tomb 2 are comparable to those of Tomb 1 but poorly preserved."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: expositorium; ostensorium CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An ornamental vessel of gold, silver, silver-gilt, or gilded or silvered copper, in which the eucharistic host is carried in processions and ceremonies. The decoration often represents usually a sun with rays, in the center of which is a lunule or glassbox in which the consecrated wafer is carried and exposed on the altars of churches. The earliest do not date before the 12th century. First used in France and Germany in the 14th century, monstrances were modeled after pyxes or reliquaries, sacred vessels for
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A fortified hilltop near Bucharest which is the type site of a Middle to Late Bronze Age culture, c 2000-1600 BC, covering much of eastern Romania. This culture of the Sub-Carpathian zone was of local origin, but absorbed influences from both the south (notably faience in trade) and the steppes. It had a rich, varied collection of pot and metal forms. The site had a citadel with a long occupation and four large grave groupings in an adjoining cemetery. The citadel was fortified by box-like ramparts and stone walls, with house platforms in the interior. The burial rite is predominantly contracted inhumation, with pottery, bronzejewelry, and stone or faience beads as grave goods.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: temple sanctuary; naoi = plural CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A shrine, usually monolithic, in which the image of an Egyptian deity was kept, especially in temple sanctuaries. A small wooden naos was normally placed inside a monolithic one in hard stone; the latter are typical of the Late Period, and sometimes elaborately decorated. The largest naoi are those where a temple's main cult statue was kept, in the sanctuary. A naos generally took the form of a rectangular chest or box hewn from a single block of wood or stone, and could also be used as a container for a funerary statue or mummified animal. Egyptian 'naophorous statues/ portrayed the subject holding a shrine, sometimes containing a divine image. The term is also used for the interior apartment of a Greek temple (a Greek temple placed within a temenos) or the cella of the Roman temple. In Classical architecture, it is the body of a temple (as distinct from the portico) in which the image of the deity is housed. In early Greek and Roman architecture it was a simple room, usually rectangular, with the entrance at one end and with the side walls often being extended to form a porch. In larger temples, where the cella is open to the sky, a small temple was sometimes placed within. In the Byzantine architectural tradition the naos was preserved as the area of a centrally planned church, including the core and the sanctuary, where the liturgy is performed.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: nigellum; Tula work CATEGORY: artifact; geology DEFINITION: Powdered sulfides of copper, silver and lead, heated and used to make a bluish-black plastic substance applied to metalwork. The material was soft; it was cast into the cut-out pattern on the object and polished flat. It was used particular to decorate the inlaid daggers of shaft grave circles at Mycenae. The art of chasing out lines or forms, and inlaying a black composition was probably well known to the Greeks. The Byzantines compounded silver, lead, sulfur, and copper, and laid it on the silver in a powder, then put it through a furnace, where it melted and incorporated with the solid metal. Germanic and Anglo-Saxon metalworkers also used the technique. Objects decorated with niello, called nielli, are usually small in scale. During the Renaissance, at the height of its popularity, the technique was widely used for the embellishment of liturgical objects and for the decoration of cups, boxes, knife handles, and belt buckles.
CATEGORY: structure; feature DEFINITION: A closed structure, in contrast to a hearth, resembling a kiln but designed for cooking food. Sometimes the fire was lit within the chamber and removed before the food could be put in. More elaborate versions have the firebox and cooking chamber separate.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A coastal settlement in Washington state occupied for c 1000 years by ancestors of the present-day Makah Indians; a prehistoricculture of the Northwest Coast tradition. Ozette suffered disaster two centuries ago when longhouses and individual dwellings were buried by mudslides and preserved in perfect condition for archaeologists to investigate in the 1970s. The over 60,000 artifacts recovered, including whale-hunting paraphernalia, weaving equipment, and wooden boxes and bowls, constitute the assemblage.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Palatine Hill CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Principal of the seven hills of ancient Rome, and the favored location in the later Republic and the Empire for magnificent private houses and sumptuous residences of the emperors. It is a four-sided plateau rising 131 feet (40 m) south of the Forum in Rome and 168 feet (51 m) above sea level. It has a circumference of 5,700 feet (1,740 m). The city of Rome was founded on the Palatine, where archaeological discoveries range from prehistoric remains to the ruins of imperial palaces. The modern use of 'palace' is commonly traced back to this period. Tradition said the Palatine Hill was the site of the earliest Roman occupation, associated with mythical Romulus and Remus. Augustus was born on the hill and started a fashion for imperial residence by buying and enlarging the house of Hortensius. This trend was followed with zest by later emperors, and Domitian took over most of the hill for his amazingly extensive Domus Augustiana. Later structures included a special emperor's box overlooking the Circus Maximus, and the Septizonium, a monumental facade built solely to screen the southeast corner of the palace.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Phaestos disk CATEGORY: artifact; language DEFINITION: A unique clay disk with stamped inscriptions in a spiral on each face of its 16 cm diameter, found in 1908 at Phaistos, Crete. It is made of baked clay and on either side is an inscription, which consists of signs impressed on the wet clay with a punch or stamp. The Phaistos disk is therefore the world's first typewritten" document" in the words of John Chadwick. There is a total of 242 signs arranged into 61 groups demarcated into boxes by lines. The signs appear to be written from the outer edge and spiral inwards in a clockwise direction. The disk come from a deposit dated c 1700 BC which makes it contemporary with the Linear A script. At this time however it appears to not be Linear A but may be an Anatolian script."
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Hard-fired pots made in the villages in the Vorgebirge Hills, west of Cologne and Bonn in Germany. The earliest example is the Wermelskirchen coinhoard pot, dated to c 960 AD. Pingsdorf ware is characteristically decorated with red paint and commonly occurs as pitchers with thumb-impressed ring bases; smaller pots, including money-boxes and toys, were also made. The products were exported to all parts of the Rhineland, as well as Britain and Scandinavia.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Wooden box made from planks fixed together (rather than a hollowed trunk, for example) for the containment of a human corpse prior to and during burial. For Roman and later times plank coffins are usually recognized archaeologically from the pattern of nails found in the grave. Plank coffins made before the availability of nails can sometimes be recognized by the patterns of grave fill.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: In Greek antiquity, a cylindrical canister-like vessel with a flat shoulder and lid, used to hold trinkets. The name is more loosely applied to lidded boxes in Greek archaeology.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Huaylas CATEGORY: culture; site DEFINITION: Pre-Columbian culture and site near present-day Recuay in the Callejón de Huaylas Valley of the northern highlands of Peru. The Recuayculture dates to the Early Intermediate Period c 200 BC-600 AD and was contemporaneous with the Mocheculture on the north coast. Recuay is known for its distinctive pottery which features a type of decoration in three colors (black, red, white) and a style of modeling with small figures of men, jaguars, llamas, and other animals attached to the vessel. The vessels were found in underground galleries and box-shaped tombs. The style, also called Huaylas, shows contact with the Moche and Gallinazo styles. Recuaystonecarving (called Aija) is related to that of the Pucará and Tiahuanaco cultures. It is characterized by the stiff blockish quality which is widespread throughout the Peruvian Highlands.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A portable shrine, box, or casket in which the relic(s) of a saint or other holy person were kept. A reliquary made to be worn around the neck was called encolpium or phylacterium.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: naos, per, sanctuary CATEGORY: structure; artifact DEFINITION: The innermost element of a temple where the cult image or bark of the deity was placed or the elaborate boxes containing funerary statuary. It was a repository for relics; either fixed, as a tomb, or movable, as a feretory. A shrine can be a case, box, or receptacle, especially one in which sacred relics (as the bones of a saint) are deposited -- or a place in which devotion is paid to a saint or deity (sanctuary). A shrine can also be a niche containing a religious image, a receptacle (as a tomb) for the dead, or a place or object worshipped in association.