(View exact match)bridleCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Headgear for a horse, usually consisting of a series of buckled straps and a mouthpiece, bridle bit, by which the horse is controlled. A bridle bit is a metal mouth piece used to control an animal, usually used on a horse.
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DEFINITION: A Bronze Age culture that succeeded the Andronovo culture in southern Siberia in the late 2nd millennium BC. The three main, basically successive, yet often overlapping cultures were the Afanasyevskaya, Andronovo, and Karasuk. The Karasuk culture developed when a gradual change was made from settled communities to seasonal transhumance. Two settlements of large pit houses are known and many cemeteries of stone cists covered by a low mound and set in a square stone enclosure equipped with round-bottomed pots; many of these are in the Minusinsk Basin. The Karasuk people were farmers who concentrated on sheep- and cattle-breeding. They also practiced metallurgy on a large scale; the most characteristic artifact is a bronze knife or dagger, with a curved profile and a decorated handle, related to China's An-Yang. They produced a realistic animal art, which probably contributed to the development of the later Sytho-Siberian animal art style. Remains of bridles mark the beginning of horse riding on the Siberian steppe. The character of their material culture came from exchange with the centers of Far Eastern metallurgy. The Karasuk culture originated and spread its influences farther to western Siberia and Russian Turkistan than did the Andronovo. Trade relations extended to central Russia. Chronology of this period is based on comparisons with northern Chinese bronzes. The Karasuk period persisted down to c 700 BC.PazyrykSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pazirik
DEFINITION: A group of some 40 barrows in the Altai Mountains of central Asia in Kazakhstan, dating to the 5th-3rd centuries BC. They consist of pits some 6 meters square covered with low cairns. The construction and altitude have combined to keep their contents frozen, and are thus remarkably well preserved. There is a rich collection of clothing and felt hangings decorated with animal art, dismantled four-wheeled wagons, and artifacts of wood, leather, skin, and wool. There are mummified remains of several tombs; the men were covered with tattoos. Many horses, with bridles, saddles, and saddlecloths had been buried in neighboring chambers. The burials clearly belonged to the rulers of a nomadic people of the eastern steppes related to the Scythians. The site is perhaps the richest source of information about the customs and artifacts of the Scythians before their westward migrations into western Asia and Europe.bit, horseCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A metal mouthpiece attached to a bridle, used to control a horse. The domesticated horse was probably first controlled with a simple halter. Bits, the mouthpiece of a horse's bridle, consisting of a bit-mouth and adjacent parts to which the reins are attached. Bits with cheek-pieces of antler did not appear in central Europe until after 1800 BC and they were later replaced by bronze bits. Bits without a cheek-piece, in 2-piece or 3-piece form, were introduced in the Iron Age.horse bitCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A metal mouthpiece on a bridle, used to control a horse