CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A long-bladed hand tool with a beveled cutting edge, struck with a hammer or mallet to cut or shape wood, stone, or metal.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A type of arrowtip, usually of flint or stone, that has a sharp straight cutting edge at right angles to the axis of the arrowshaft, rather than a point. Such arrowheads are believed to have been used for shooting birds.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A type of tool made of stone or, more usually, metal with a shaped narrow blade that can be used carefully to remove thin strips or shavings of wood when fashioning a joint or shaping a block.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter (Aq Kupruk II) and open site (Aq Kupruk III) on the Balkh River in northern Afghanistan. It is one of the richest Palaeolithic sites in that area. Aq Kupruk II had a single late Palaeolithic deposit with a bladeindustry (including microliths) with a radiocarbon date of c 14,600 BC. Aq Kupruk III had two deposits, one with artifacts similar to II and a lower one without microlithics. The presence of domesticated sheep and goats at Aq Kupruk has been dated to 8000 BC and that of cattle to about 6000 BC. Sickle blades, peaked stone hoes, chisels, hand mills, and pounders suggest the collection and preparation of wild grains, if not cultivation.
CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A New Stone Age tool, usually a polished, ungrooved ax or adz head or blade that would be attached to a wooden shaft. The tool, often shaped like a chisel and made of stone or bronze, was probably used for felling trees or shapingwood. Great numbers of celts have been discovered in the British Isles and Denmark and they were traded widely. Bronze Age tools of similar general design are also called celts.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: chip carving CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A technique of decoration with the use of an ax, hatchet, mallet, and/or chisel, which probably originated in the Roman and Celtic world. The technique was adapted by Germanic wood-carvers to make animal ornaments and by metalsmiths of the Migration Period. This excised decoration was done by cutting from the surface triangular and rectilinear small chips. The end result was a pattern of combined V-shaped incisions, with a glittering faceted appearance. It is found in woodwork and pottery, when it has to be done before the clay is fired. False relief is a special version of this technique. Examples are the Tassilo Chalice (Kremsmünster Abbey, Austria) and the Lindau Gospels book cover (Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Erimi-Bamboula CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A deeply stratified site in southern Cyprus, which has produced evidence of a sequence of pottery styles covering most of the 4th millennium BC. It is the type site for the Chalcolithic I Erimiculture, characterized by red-on-white pottery. The houses were first cut into rock, but later were circular huts of wattle and daub on stone foundations. The site is best known for its single copperchisel, the earliest evidence on the island for the use of the metal from which it derives its name.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Hoards of copper objects found in the Ganges basin in India. The main types of objects are flat and shouldered axes, bar chisels, barbed harpoons, antenna-hilted swords, hooked spears, and anthropomorphic objects. Associations with ochre-colored pottery suggest a date of the 2nd millennium BC.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A chisel with a concaveblade, used in carpentry, sculpture, and surgery; is a long, tapered, semi-cylindrical implement with a broad groove or hollow at the U-shaped, scooplike working end
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Grime's Graves CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The oldest known Neolithicflint mine in England, in Norfolk, with the remains of around 350 mine shafts. The high-quality flint had three banks: floorstone, wallstone, and topstone. The products, mainly ax blades, were roughly chipped to shape at the site and were then traded in semi-finished condition. The miners used flint tools, deer's antlers as picks or wedges, and animal shoulder blades as spades. Excavation was probably by wooden shovel (a product of the polished ax and chisel) or possibly the shoulder blades of oxen. It is estimated that 50,000 picks made of red-deer antler were used during the 600 years of activity in the mine, which began about 2300 BC. In one shaft, the miners made a chalk statuette of a fat pregnant woman and a phallus of chalk; this practice, a fertility cult, was used to bring fruitful results in further mining. There are differing dates for the use of the mine shafts.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ku-wei-ts'un CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A late Eastern Zhoucemeterysite in Hui-hsien, China. Three large shaft tombs has north and south entrance ramps and are similar in construction to far earlier Shang tombs. The largest of the three was marked at ground level by a low mound edged with large stones, a new feature modeled on works of the northern nomads. A number of cast-iron tools -- plowshares, picks, hoes, shovels, axes, and chisels -- were found in the tomb.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An early Bronze Age chieftain's burial of the Uneticeculture of Saxony, Germany. It consisted of a lean-to wooden mortuary chamber under a stonecairn, itself covered by a barrow. Inside was the burial of an extended elderly male and, placed at right angles across him, a second body, of an adolescent, perhaps female. Grave goods included a series of gold ornaments (pins, spirals, hair-rings, beads, earrings, and an arm-ring), bronze daggers, axes, halberds, and chisels; stone tools, and pottery.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Age of the Reindeer CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The final major European culture of the Upper Paleolithic period, from about 15,000-10,000 years ago; characterized by composite or specialized tools, tailored clothing, and especially geometric and representational cave art (e.g. Altamira) and for beautiful decorative work in bone and ivory (mobiliary art). The people were chiefly fishermen and reindeer hunters; they were the first known people to have used a spear thrower (of reindeerbone and antler) to increase the range, strength, and accuracy. Magdalenianstone tools include small geometrically shaped implements (e.g., triangles, semilunar blades) probably set into bone or antler handles for use, burins (a sort of chisel), scrapers, borers, backed bladelets, and shouldered and leaf-shaped projectile points. Bone was used extensively to make wedges, adzes, hammers, spearheads with link shafts, barbed points and harpoons, eyed needles, jewelry, and hooked rods probably used as spear throwers. They killed animals with spears, snares, and traps and lived in caves, rock shelters, or substantial dwellings in winter and in tents in summer. The name is derived from La Madeleine or Magdalene, the type site in the Dordogne of southwest France. Its center of origin was southwest France and the adjacent parts of Spain, but elements characteristic of the later stages are represented in Britain (Creswell Crags), and eastwards to southwest Germany and Poland. The Magdalenianculture, like that of earlier Upper Palaeolithic communities, was adapted to the cold conditions of the last (Würm) glaciation. The Magdalenian has been divided into six phases; it followed the Solutreanindustry and was succeeded by the simplified Azilian. Magdalenianculture disappeared as the cool, near-glacialclimate warmed at the end of the Fourth (Würm) GlacialPeriod (c 10,000 BC), and herd animals became scarce.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Noailles burin CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The Grotte de Noailles, close to Brive, Corrèze, southwest France, which has given its name to a small multiple burin -- an Upper Palaeolithicflaketool retouched to give several chisellike edges. The Noaillesburin distinguishes a facies of the Upper Perigordian or Noaillian, dating to c 27,000 bp.
CATEGORY: artifact; geology DEFINITION: A jewelry-making and metalworking technique whereby a design is raised or embossed by hammering or punching out the metal from behind. Repoussé is usually done on bronze, but also on gold and silver. It consists of hammering up the design from the back of the object using round-edged punches. The surface of the raised design can then be decorated. Further work on the design can be done using chisels and punches on the front of the sheet --- a technique known as chasing.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: shoe-last celt CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A long thin stoneadze (chisel-shaped ground-stone tool) employed by the Danubian farmers of the Early Neolithic, possibly as a hoe for cultivating their fields. It is a common stone tool found in Early Neolithic Linear Pottery contexts throughout Europe. It might also have been used as an adze for carpentry.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: spud CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A flaredcelt, usually 8-10 inches long with a smooth, slender handle, used mainly like a chisel or knife
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A concretion of mineral matter, one of the first materials to be used for making artifacts. Very fine grained or glassy stones, such as flint and obsidian, were shaped mainly by chipping or flaking. Other less brittle stones had to be hammered or chiseled into shape, and then polished. Precious and decorative stones were also widely used in antiquity. Petrological analysis of stone has allowed the source materials to be discovered.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Tardenois CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mesolithicculture of southwest France that followed the Sauveterrian and which was characterized by the use of small stone tools with geometric shapes (trapeze-shaped chisel-ended arrowheads and small blades). Tardenoisian and similar industries are found from Iberia to central Europe and span the period from the early 6th millennium BC until the arrival of the first Neolithic farmers. Fère-en-Tardenois, in the Paris basin, is the type site of the Tardenoisian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: tranchet ax; tranchet axe; tranchet technique; tranchet flake CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: A large Mesolithic or Neolithicchisel-ended flintartifact with a sharp straight cutting edge, produced by the removal of a thick flake at a right angle to the main axis of the tool. The technique was used for the manufacture of axes and adzes and allowed a blunted tool to be resharpened by removing another flake from across the edge. The tranchet technique has two definitions: 1) the removal of a large flat flake from the tip of a biface to form a straight cutting edge from the edge of the tranchet flake scar or, 2) the technique used to create or resharpen the ax or adze's cutting edge.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Either of a pair of cylindrical mounting lugs or projections on the sides of a cannon or mortar, by which it is pivoted on its carriage. A trunnion is also one of a pair of laterally projecting knobs on a stone or metal blade (ax, chisel, etc.) to assist in its hafting.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: tula CATEGORY: lithics DEFINITION: In Australia, a hafted chisel made to work hardwoods. It is a thick, round stoneflake, usually about 5 cm long, with a steeply trimmed working edge opposite an obtuse-angled striking platform. They usually have a prominent bulb and convex bulbar surface. Ethnographic examples are set in gum on the end of a wooden handle or spearthrower. The edge would be resharpened until the flake became elliptical, when it is discarded. In this form, with a heavily step-flaked edge opposite the striking platform, it is termed a 'tulaadze slug'. Tula adzes are restricted to more arid regions and the oldest examples come from Puntutjarpa (c 8000-5000 BC) and are exactly like those still used by desert Aborigines.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: In making wooden artifacts, a reductive forming technique using a lathe to rotate a piece of wood and a mainly stationary chisel to remove material from it.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: In making wooden artifacts, a reductive forming technique using a lathe to rotate a piece of wood and a mainly stationary chisel to remove material from it.
Vila Nova de Sao Pedro
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Important Chalcolithicsite near Santarém, Portugal with an unenclosed settlement c 3800 BC, succeeded by one surrounded by at least two bastioned stone walls, c 3200 BC. The first belonged to the Palmella culture and the final phase belonged to Beaker culture, c 2500 BC. Artifacts include copper axes, chisels, and daggers; pottery included Beaker material and local wares of the 3rd millennium BC. Strongly fortified settlements, such as this, accompanied by cemeteries containing rich collections of prestige goods suggest the appearance of a hierarchically organized society.