CATEGORY: fauna DEFINITION: The first domesticated animal species; the earliest such site is the Upper Palaeolithic cave of Palegawra in Iraq, with a date of c 10,000 BC. Other early evidence is from the Mesolithic in Star Carr c 7500 BC, from Turkey c 7000 BC, and in America in a Late Pleistocene deposit at Jaguar Cave, Idaho. A number of different types of dogs can be recognized from depictions in Egyptian tombs. All domestic dogs appear ultimately to have been derived from the wolf. The dog is found in hunter-gatherer communities as well as early farming communities.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An ornament consisting of a series of pyramidal flowers of four petals, typical of 13th century AD work.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A type of clayfigurine, most often depicting a pregnant female, made in Japan during the Jomonperiod, c 5th-4th millennium to c 250 BC. The function of these figurines is unknown, but it is generally believed that they were some kind of fertility symbol and they are reminiscent of the rigidly frontal fertility figures produced by other prehistoric cultures. Archaeological evidence suggests they were aids in childbirth as well as fertility symbols. They are also found in simulated burials, indicating some kind of ceremonial function. Fired at a low temperature, they often have crumbly surfaces and many are painted red.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The practice of marrying a person within one's own social unit, such as a clan or tribe.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: andiron CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An instrument consisting of an iron bar held horizontally at one end by an upright support, used to ensure the proper burning of a fire. A pair of these was put at each side of the hearth or fireplace to support burning wood; the end of a log could rest on the crosspiece, which was supported by two uprights. Decorative iron examples come from La Tene Iron Age contexts, mostly in graves. In a kitchen fireplace, the upright support might hold a rack in front for the spit to turn in.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The interaction of the physical, chemical, and biological factors, processes, and conditions that cause a soil to evolve into a soil horizon.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Major north Russian town founded in the 10th century on the left bank of the river Volkhow, 20 km from its outlet in Lake Ladoga close to the eastern end of the Baltic Sea. Although Scandinavian material has been found, the Russians firmly contend that the town is Slavic in character and origin and is seen by many as the precursor of Novgorod.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site or a rock shelter near the village of Les Eyzies (Dordogne) in the Vézère valley of southwestern France. It has a very rich Upper Palaeolithicsequence of more than 14 main culture layers with radiocarbon dates from c 32,500 BC, beginning with Aurignacian deposits containing saucerlike living hollows with central hearths. The Aurignacian levels are followed by Perigordian and Proto-Magdalenian and probably Proto-Solutrean levels. Art objects have been found and a skeleton in a top layer. The various kinds of hearths and living areas may suggest different social groups inhabiting the area.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Albacete CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A collection of well-preserved paintings over the back wall of the shallow rock shelter Cueva Vieja in southeast Spain. They belong to the Spanish Levant cycle, c 8000-5000 BC (Mesolithic), and depict a group of women, hunters or warriors with bows and arrows and feather headdresses; and deer, ox, and possibly dogs.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Inpw, Anpu CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: The Egyptian god of the dead, in the form of a wild-dog or jackal-headed man. Anubis guarded the tombs and the underworld and presided over mummification and embalming. In the Early Dynastic period and the Old Kingdom, he enjoyed a dominant position but was later overshadowed by Osiris.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A Mesolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic) culture of southwest France and northern Spain, which seems to follow the Late Magdalenian of the area. It falls within the Late Glacial Period and may be correlated with the Allerod oscillation of the 10th millennium BC (c 9000 to 8000 BC). The culture was characterized by flint microliths, pebbles painted with schematic designs, small thumb-scrapers, fish hooks, and flat boneantler harpoons. It is named for Le Mas d'Zail, a massive cave region in southern France where such artifacts were first discovered in 1889. The Azilians were food gatherers who had domesticated the dog. The Oban and Oransay cultures are degenerated Azilian.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of an early Yangshao Neolithic village, now a museum at Xi'an, China, in the basin of the confluence of the Yellow River (Huang Ho), the Fen Ho, and Kuei Shui. Radiocarbon dates range from c 4800-4300 BC. The settlement was about 50,000 sq. meters and included a cemetery and pottery kilns outside a ditch that surrounded the residences. Dogs, cattle, sheep, chicken and pigs were domesticated and millet, rice, kaoling, and possibly soybeans grown. The horse and silkworm may also have been raised. Unpainted pottery was cord-marked or stamped, and fine ceremonial" pottery vessels were painted in black or red with some simple geometric patterns and drawings of fish turtles deer and faces. There were some elaborately worked objects in jade as well as everyday objects made from flintbone and groundstone. Sites with similar remains have been excavated at nearby Jiangzhai Baoji Beishouling and Hua Xian Yuanjunmiao. These sites all exhibit the first evidence of food production in China."
CATEGORY: fauna DEFINITION: A large carnivore of the family Ursidae, closely related to the dog (family Canidae) and raccoon (Procyonidae). The bear is the most recently evolved of carnivores and it appears to have diverged from the dogfamily during the Miocene. It evolved through such forms as the Pliocene Hyaenarctos (of Europe, Asia, and North America), into modern types such as the black and brown bear (Ursus). Today's bears are of three groups: the brown bears, the black bears, and the polar bear. Occasional finds of fossil polar bear bones outside the Arctic Circle are presumably related to the presence of pack ice and ice shelves at the edges of ice sheets during glaciations. Brown bears existed in Europe and Asia during the late Quaternaryperiod. One very large variant evolved in Europe, the 'Cave Bear', whose fossils are quite common in Quaternary cave deposits.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A coastal occupation site on Oahu, Hawaii, which has produced some of the earliest occupation dates (600-1000 AD) of the island group. The assemblage is of Early Eastern Polynesian type: shell fishhooks, stone adzes, and bones of dog, pig, and rat.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A deposit of angular compositestone fragments held together by a matrix of natural cement, such as sap, lime, or a calcium-charged water. Its occurrence indicates a previous cold phase in the climate, since the rock is detached either by frost or alternating heat and cold. Many caves occupied by early man, e.g. Dordogne in southwest France, have layers of breccia crammed with bones, tools, art objects. This conglomerate used by the ancient peoples in architecture and sculpture. It is the opposite of conglomerate, in which the fragments are rounded and waterworn. Osseous or bone breccia is breccia in which fossil bones are found.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Neolithicsite in the Vale of Kashmir with phases of occupation dating from c 3050 BC to the 3rd-4th centuries AD. Deep pit dwellings are associated with ground stone axes, bone tools, and coarse gray burnished pottery. These characteristics plus the absence of blades, use of pierced rectangular knives, and association of dog skeletons with human burials, all seem to point to connections with central and northern Asia, as Mongolia, rather than with the rest of the Indian subcontinent. Hunting seems to have been the main basis of the economy. Phase II has houses of mud and mudbrick and Phase III has a group of large stones arranged in a rough semicircle.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: calendrics CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A cyclical system of measuring the passage of time. The day is the fundamental unit of computation in any calendar. Most ancient civilizations (and perhaps some non-literate prehistoric societies) developed calendrical systems to mark the passage of time and various methods have been employed by different peoples. Where these were both carefully calculated and written down, as in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Mesoamerica, they are of considerable assistance to archaeologists for dating purposes. In the Americas, the origins of calendrics are still obscure, but evidence from Monte Albán suggests that the 52-year Calendar Round was known by the 6th century BC. The Long Count system was in use by c 1st century BC if not before. Ancient Near Eastern calendars varied from city to city and from period to period. In most cities the year started in the spring and was divided into 12 or 13 months. In some places the months were of fixed length; in others they were lunar months starting at the first sighting of the crescent of the new moon. As there are more than 12 lunar months in a solar year additional, or intercalary, months were included so that every third year contained 13 months. The earliest Egyptian calendars were based on lunar observations combined with the annual cycle of the Nileinundation, measured with nilometers. On this basis, the Egyptians divided the year into 12 months and three seasons: akhet (inundation), peret (spring/ crops), and shemu (harvest). The Egyptians had 30-day months and 5 intercalary days in their solar or civil calendar. For agricultural purposes and for determining religious festivals, they used a different calendar based on observations of Sirius, the dog star. The calendar in use in ancient Mesopotamia and the Levant was lunar, based on 12 months of 30 days each. This produced a year of only 354 days, about 11-1/4 days short of the true solar year; the necessary correction was made by the addition of seven months over a period of 19 years. This type of calendar is still used in both Judaism and Islam for religious purposes, though many countries now also employ the Gregorian solar calendar for secular purposes. The origin of the calendric system in general use today -- the Gregorian calendar -- can be traced back to the Roman republican calendar, which is thought to have been introduced by the fifth king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus (616-579 BC). This calendar was likely derived from an earlier Roman calendar -- a lunar system of 10 months -- that was supposedly devised about 738 BC by Romulus, the founder of Rome. In the year 46 BC, Julius Caesar corrected the calendar by having a year of 445 days (known as the ultimus annus confusionis' or 'the last year of the muddled reckoning'). He then adapted the Egyptian solar calendar for Roman use, inserting extra days in the shorter months to bring the total up to 365, with the addition of a single day between the 23rd and 24th February in leap years. This calendar, known as the Julian Calendar, remained in use until the time of Gregory XIII in 1582, who made a further correction (of eleven days) and instituted the calendar which is in general use today. Very useful to Mesoamerican archaeologists is the Maya Long Count or Initial Series, which was a means of recording absolute time. Its starting date of 3113 BC (using the Goodman-Thompson-Martinex correlation) marks some mythical event in Mayahistory and itself stands at the beginning of a cycle 13 Baktuns long. A Baktun at 144,000 days in the largest unit of time in the calendar and is further divided into smaller units: the Katun (7200 days); the Tun (360 days); the Uninal (20 days) and the Kin (a single days). Thus Long Count dates are expressed in terms of these units in a five place notation. Therefore the date 188.8.131.52.0. indicates the passage of 9 x 144,000 plus 18 x 7200 days since the initial date of 3113 BC. In cultural contexts, however, the dates are inscribed as a series of hieroglyphs which incorporate numeration via bars (units of five) and dots (units of one). Short count dating replaced the Long Count after 900 AD and the Katun replaced the Baktun as the largest unit. It is less precise, however.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A distinctive pottery named after a Roman settlement site on the north bank of the Nene in Northhamptonshire. Castor ware is a slate-colored pottery which commonly had hunting scenes of dogs, boars, etc. on the outer surface, which were applied by squeezing paste from a bag or applying by brush. The E barbotine hunt cups were a highlight of the native Romano-British potter's craft.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Raymonden CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Magdalenianrock shelters in Dordogne, France, with hearths, harpoons, and mobiliary art. The ochre-covered burial of Chancelade man" found in 1888 was a Homo sapiens sapiens."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter in Dordogne, France, with Châtelperronian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, and Solutrean industries as well as a burial of a Homo sapiens sapiens.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Combe Grenal CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter site on the Dordogne River in southwest France, near the town of Domme. There are 64 archaeological levels, including nine bottom levels of the Acheulianindustrydating from the end of the Riss glaciation, followed by a series of 55 Mousterian levels. Occupation ended just before the end of the Mousterianperiod, and there is a radiocarbon date of just over 37,000 BC from Level 12, near the top of the deposit. The site has the largest number of cultural levels of any Palaeolithicsite known to date. The 55 Mousterian levels have formed the basis for the analysis of the Mousterian into five main types. A burial pit has been recognized in the Mousterian levels with some human bones. The site has fauna and pollen evidence from all levels.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Cromagnon CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A population of anatomically modern Homo sapiens dating from the Upper Paleolithic Period (c 35,000-10,000 years ago), first found in 1868 in a shallow cave at Cro-Magnon in the Dordogne region of southern France. French geologist Louis Lartet uncovered five archaeological layers and the race of prehistoric humans revealed by this find was called Cro-Magnon and has since been considered, along with Neanderthals, to be representative of prehistoric humans at that time. It was also the first discovery of remains of Homo sapiens in a deposit containing Upper Palaeolithic tools. The skeletons had been carefully buried, covered with red ochre, and necklaces laid beside them. They were the earliest known modern humans in Europe, who were characterized by a long skull and high forehead, a tall erect stature, and the use of bladetechnology and bone tools. They were associated with the Aurignacianculture, which produced the earliest European art. Unlike Neanderthal man, the remains are hardly different from modern man.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ta-tun-tzu CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Neolithicsite in Pei Xian, Jiangsu province, China, with three main levels named after the nearby sites of Qinlian'gang, Liulin, and Huating. The lowest (Qinglian'gang) level at Danunzi yielded a radiocarbon date of c 4500 BC. In the middle (Liulin) level, extraordinary painted pottery was found with the usual undecorated pots native to the local Qinglian'gang tradition. Both the shapes and the painted designs copy the Yangshao pottery of Miaodigou; radiocarbon dates suggest that the Liulin phase belongs in the 4th millennium BC. Some graves of the Liulin phase at Dadunzi contained sacrificed dogs. At Dawenkou in Shangdong, where the lower level belongs to the Huating phase, pigs appear instead, and the graves often take the form of a stepped pit -- significant as forerunners of characteristic Shangburial practices. Perforated tortoise shells from Liulin graves may likewise foreshadow tortoise plastrons in Shang oracle bones.
CATEGORY: fauna DEFINITION: A native Australian dog which was the only terrestrial non-marsupial carnivore and one of the few pre-European placental mammals in Australia. Introduced during the Holocene, the earliest dates are between 3500-3000 bp in Wombah, New Tasmania. At present the dingo's external origins are unknown, but the answer may bring to light human migrations and contacts between Australia and Asia in the mid-Holocene. The dog most closely resembles Indian mid-Holocene dogs.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: domestic animals CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The adaptation of an animal or plant through breeding in captivity for useful advantage to and by humans. Early agriculturists controlled fauna through selection and breeding so that animals might produce more of what man needed than their wild forebears. The definition includes the taming of cats and dogs as house pets, as well as the care and control of cattle, sheep, goat, pig, horse, llama, camel, guinea pig, etc. It included breeding for produce such as milk, meat, hides, and wool, and the training of animals for draft and carrying. This selection by man resulted in osteological changes in the animals, so that in general domesticated animals can be distinguished by their remains from their wild ancestors. The process of domestication was a slow one; dogs likely being the first in Mesolithic times. Sheep were likely domesticated by 9000 BC in Iraq. Goats, cattle, and pigs followed in the next 3000 years, all in southwest Asia. The horse appears in the 2nd millennium, and the camel in the 1st. In the New World, domesticable animals were far fewer, notably the dog, llama, and guinea pig. The change involved, from hunting and gathering to food production was one of the most important in human development. Adaptations made by animal and plant species to the cultural environment as a result of human interference in reproductive or other behavior are often detectable as specific physical changes in faunal or floral ecofacts.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A soil horizon from which minerals, humus, or plant nutrients have been lost. It has lost the material in solution or suspension by pedogenesic processes. The most common eluvial horizon is E.
Font de Gaume
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Font-de-Gaume CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A painted cave close to Les Eyzies in the Dordogne region, southwest France. Excavations have revealed archaeological levels deep in the interior spanning several earlier Upper Palaeolithic phases, but the polychrome paintings of bison and other animals date from the late Magdalenian at the end of the Palaeolithic (c 14,000-10,000 BC).
Fourneau du Diable
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave in the northern part of the Dordogne, southwest France, occupied during the Upper Palaeolithic, with Perigordian, Solutrian and Magdalenian deposits. It is one of only two sites where Solutrian art is well-exemplified.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithic cave site in Dordogne, southwest France, with Magdalenian levels, including numerous engravings. The engravings are amongst the finest and most delicate ever found from the Palaeolithicperiod.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An Upper Palaeolithicindustry named after the site La Gravette in the Dordogne of southwest France and characterized by well-developed blade tools of flint and female figurines of ivory. This advanced industry succeeded the Aurignacian and preceded the Solutrean, c 28,000-20,000BP. In France it is known as the Upper Périgordian (Périgordian IV) and the Gravettian appears to have developed in central Europe, expanding to the east and west. The small, pointed blades with straight blunted backs are called Gravette points. Most of the French sites are caves, but possibly related industries, known as Eastern Gravettian, are distributed through the loess lands of central Europe and Russia at the camp sites of mammoth-hunters; other sites are in Spain, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Italy. The Gravettians invented the bow and arrow, blunted-back knives of flint, and the tanged arrowheads. They are famous, too, for their cave paintings. Other artifacts include bone or ivory spears and, in eastern Europe, numerous other bone tools incised with an elaborate geometricpattern.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave site in Dordogne, France, with stratigraphy from Mindel/Riss to early Würm, including an occurrence of the Mousterian. The span is c 246,000-74,000 BP.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ho-mu-tu CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: An Early Neolithicsite in Zhejiang Province, China, dating back to the late 6th and early 5th millennia BC. Two radiocarbon dates of c 5000 and c 4800 BC are the earliest yet for ricecultivation and it is the type-site of the southern rice-growing regime (millet was grown in the north). Pigs, dogs, and water buffalo were domesticated. Hoes or spades made from cattle scapulae have been found in large quantity; stone tools were few and crude. Timber houses show the use of a mortise-and-tenon technique. The low-fired handmade pottery includes shallow Ding tripods. It was succeeded by the Qingliangangculture in the Early Neolithic and by the Daxi, Qujialing, and Liangzhu cultures in the Middle Neolithic, c 3800-2800 BC.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A popular style of Roman color-coated beaker with a decorative scene, usually depicting dogs hunting stags or hares, executed in barbotine.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: hyaena CATEGORY: fauna DEFINITION: A carnivorous quadruped of a family related to the dog, though the skull resembles the Felidae or cat family. It has powerful jaws, neck, and shoulders but its hind quarters and low and relatively undeveloped. Three species survive today: the striped hyena (Hyaena striata), the brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea), and the spotted hyena or tiger wolf (Hyaena crocuta). Most hyenas live in Africa, though there are some in Asia. Remains of extinct hyena have been found in caves of the Old World. The laughing" hyena is the spotted hyena."
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: South American Indians who, at the time of the Spanish conquest in 1532, ruled an empire that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from the northern border of modern Ecuador to the Maule River in central Chile. The Inca established their capital at Cuzco (Peru) in the 12th century. They began their conquests in the early 15th century and within 100 years had gained control of an Andean population of about 12,000,000 people. These Quechua-speaking tribes' origins are uncertain. Their vast empire had a centralized organization and at its head was the ruler, 'Son of the Sun', worshipped as a god in his own lifetime. As a divine king he was above the law, and as a despotic ruler he was very much the political head of the state. Administration was in the hands of officials drawn from the Inca nobility and from the chiefs of conquered tribes. An efficient roadsystem, along which relays of messengers could travel 250 km in a day, ensured that Cuzco was kept informed of developments all over the empire. These same roads allowed Inca forces to be quickly moved into any province which showed signs of rebellion. This centralization was both the strength and the weakness of the Incastate. The unifying force was the ruler in person, and the death of Huayna Capac precipitated a crisis. Civil war broke out when two of his sons, Huascar and Atahuallpa, disputed the succession. Atahuallpa won the war, but before he could consolidate his position he was seized and murdered by Francisco Pizarro's Spaniards in 1532. Without a leader the Incasystem could not function. Most of the empire was quickly brought under Spanish control, but an independent Inca group held out in the Urubamba valley until 1572. Viracocha Inca was the creator, culture hero, and supreme deity of the Inca, but the religion embraced a pantheon of gods of nature. The most actively worshipped were the sun and, by extension, the emperor, who was considered the son of the sun. The Temple of the Sun, built at the pre-Incan ceremonial center of Pachacamac suggests some incorporation of earlier religions. Archaeologically, the Incaculture is characterized by fine quality stone masonry, agricultural terraces, mass-produced and standardized pottery forms (aryballus), and metal objects. The considerable architectural skill of the Inca is reflected in Cyclopean masonry, although many buildings were constructed using rectangular dressed stone blocks as well as adobe. The basic dwelling-unit was a cluster of single rooms arranged around a rectangular courtyard and was most often enclosed by a wall. Writing was unknown, but the quipu was used for keeping records. Agriculture was based on plant foods, especially potato, manioc, quinoa, and maize. Domesticated animals included dog, llama, cava (guinea pig), and alpaca. Fine textiles were woven using a simple backstraploom. The civilization was the largest and most powerful political unit in all the prehistoric America. It has been argued that the whole of Inca achievement relied heavily on a variety of political, societal and religious infrastructures already in place before their ascendancy.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Cave in Tennessee with aboriginal footprints and charcoaldating to 4700 BP. It is also the name of a cave site in Idaho, dating to the 9th and 10th millennia BC, with early evidence of the dog.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A small aceramicNeolithic to ceramic Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros mountains of northern Iraq. Jarmo was used to explain the origins of food production by Robert Braidwood, as the site dates to the later 7th millennium BC and there was carbonized wheat and barley. Its radiocarbon dates place it amongst the world's earliest food-producing settlements. Goat and dog bones show domestication. The first 11 of its 16 levels had no pottery, though clay-lined pits were baked in situ. Square houses of pisé were built with clay ovens and grain pits which included flint and obsidian chipped stone tools, stone bowls, and clay figurines. Flaked and ground stone were freely used for tools and utensils. It is the type site of the Jarmoan culture.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Jomon rock shelter on Shikoku, Japan with potteryradiocarbon-dated to the late 11th millennium BC, similar to that at Fukui and Sempukuji. It is associated with bifacial points rather than with microblades. Incised flat pebbles representing human females were also found -- the earliest portable art found in Japan. The 20 human and two dog burials in one of the upper layers are among the oldest Initial (Incipient) Jomon burials.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Dordogne rock shelter in France, extremely rich in mobiliary art, which is the type site for the Magdalenian -- the final West European Upper Palaeolithicindustry. First excavated by Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy, the Magdalenian dated from approximately 16,000-10,000 BC. Very numerous carved art pieces have been found with the stone and bone tools.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Site of a 17th-century AD burial of a Maori woman on an island in Lake Hauroko, southwestern South Island, New Zealand. When found, the skeleton was still sitting on a bier of sticks and wrapped in a woven flax cloak with a dogskin collar with feather edging.
Lartet, Edouard (1801-1871)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: A French scholar, one of the pioneers of Palaeolithicarchaeology, known as the founder of the science of palaeontology. He proposed a classification scheme for the Palaeolithicperiod based on animal bones: the Cave Bear period; the Woolly Mammoth and Rhinoceros period; the Reindeer period and the Aurochs or Bison period. He collaborated with Henry Christy in excavating many of the well-known rock shelter sites of southern France and was one of the first to recognize in situ mobiliary art; the publication of these objects from well-excavated contexts made it easier for scholars to accept the authenticity of cave art. With Christy, he carried out the first systematic study of south French caves, and excavated many of the most famous sites in the Dordogne (Laugerie-Haute, Le Moustier, La Madeleine). Their results appeared in several important articles, and also, during the decade 1865-1875, in the volumes of Reliquiae Aquitanicae"."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Magdalenian cave in the Dordogne, southwest France, with a spectacular collection of Palaeolithic paintings and engravings. Once the cave was opened to visitors, the delicate atmospheric balance was disturbed and the paintings were attacked by fungus; it was closed to the public in 1963. A small number of archaeological finds from inside the cave probably date to the early Magdalenian including lamps. A Neanderthal skeleton was found a few hundred meters away at Regoudou. There are 600 paintings of aurochs, horses, deer, and signs, accompanied by 1500 engravings dominated by horses. Some of the paintings in the rotunda, especially the bulls, approach life size, which is unusual in cave art. A number of paintings are in two contrasting colors, red iron oxide and black manganese dioxide. It was probably never inhabited, but was used from c 15,000 BC. A nearby facsimile cave, Lascaux II, is now open to the public.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter near Les Eyzies in Dordogne, southwest France with a long sequence of Mousterian and Upper Palaeolithic levels. The site is best known for its bas-relief carvings, especially the female figure holding a horn or 'cornucopia'.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave near Les Eyzies in the Dordogne region of France that is the type site of the Mousterian or Middle Palaeolithic. The type artifacts from the Mousterian consist of points and side scrapers, in addition to a few hand axes (especially heart- or triangular-shaped forms), and the secondary working is coarse. Upper Palaeolithic levels cover the Mousterian levels in both the classic shelter and the lower shelter. From the lower shelter came a Neanderthal skeleton of nearly mature age.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A long narrow cave just outside Les Eyzies in the Dordogne, southwest France, where thousands of superimposed engravings from the late Aurignacian through the middle Magdalenian periods were discovered. The engravings are dominated by horses, bison, bear, reindeer, mammoth, and andropomorphs. They are assigned to the mid-Magdalenian, c 14,000-12,000 BC. The number of engravings suggests that the cave long served as the center of a hunting cult. Scholars rank Les Combarelles as one of the finest products of the Ice Age.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Village near the center of the Dordogne, southwest France, the site of many Palaeolithic cave and rock shelter sites left by prehistoric man in the limestone zone called the Perigord. The chateau and National Museum contain many important finds and underneath it there is a small Magdalenian and Aziliansite, Grotte des Eyzies.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Age of the Reindeer CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The final major European culture of the Upper Paleolithic period, from about 15,000-10,000 years ago; characterized by composite or specialized tools, tailored clothing, and especially geometric and representational cave art (e.g. Altamira) and for beautiful decorative work in bone and ivory (mobiliary art). The people were chiefly fishermen and reindeer hunters; they were the first known people to have used a spear thrower (of reindeerbone and antler) to increase the range, strength, and accuracy. Magdalenianstone tools include small geometrically shaped implements (e.g., triangles, semilunar blades) probably set into bone or antler handles for use, burins (a sort of chisel), scrapers, borers, backed bladelets, and shouldered and leaf-shaped projectile points. Bone was used extensively to make wedges, adzes, hammers, spearheads with link shafts, barbed points and harpoons, eyed needles, jewelry, and hooked rods probably used as spear throwers. They killed animals with spears, snares, and traps and lived in caves, rock shelters, or substantial dwellings in winter and in tents in summer. The name is derived from La Madeleine or Magdalene, the type site in the Dordogne of southwest France. Its center of origin was southwest France and the adjacent parts of Spain, but elements characteristic of the later stages are represented in Britain (Creswell Crags), and eastwards to southwest Germany and Poland. The Magdalenianculture, like that of earlier Upper Palaeolithic communities, was adapted to the cold conditions of the last (Würm) glaciation. The Magdalenian has been divided into six phases; it followed the Solutreanindustry and was succeeded by the simplified Azilian. Magdalenianculture disappeared as the cool, near-glacialclimate warmed at the end of the Fourth (Würm) GlacialPeriod (c 10,000 BC), and herd animals became scarce.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Maglemosan CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The first Mesolithicculture of the north European plain, found in Scandinavia, the northern Balkans, northern Scotland, and northern England, and lasting from c 9000/8000-5000 BC. The way of life was adapted to a forest and river/lakeside environment. Much has been preserved in waterlogged deposits. Thus more is known about the Maglemosianindustry than about other tool industries of the same period. The tool kit included microliths, woodworking tools such as chipped axes and adzes, picks, barbed points, spearheads of bone or antler, and fishing gear. Wooden bows, paddles, and dugout canoes have been found, and the dog was already domesticated. The Maglemosianindustry was named after the bog (magle mose, big bog in Danish) at Mullerup, Denmark, where evidence of the industry was first recognized. The Maglemosianindustry was also highly artistic, with decorative designs on tools and decorative objects, such as pendants and amulets.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: mesolithic, Epipaleolithic, Middle Stone Age CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A time period in human history beginning with the retreat of glacial ice c 8500 BC and the changing climatic conditions following it; a development in northwestern Europe that lasted until about 2700 BC. This Middle Stone Age followed the Upper Paleolithic and preceded the Neolithic. It was a period of transition in the early Holocene between the hunter-gatherer existence and the development of farming and pottery production. Glacialflora and fauna were replaced by modern forms and the flint industries are often distinguished by an abundance of microliths. The equipment was designed for fishing and fowling as well as hunting and often included many tiny flints, or microliths, that were set in wooden shafts and hafts, and stone axes or adzes used for woodworking. Forests grew in Europe and people modified their lives accordingly. In the Near East, which remained free of ice sheets, climatic change was less significant than in northern Europe and agriculture was practiced soon after the close of the Pleistocene. In this area the Mesolithicperiod was short and poorly differentiated. In Britain the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition did not come until around 4000 BC. The dog was domesticated during the Mesolithic. The term is used widely only in European prehistory.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A geological epoch of the Tertiaryperiod in the earth's history, in which many of the great mountain chains were formed and mammals came to dominate animal life. During this epoch, many mammals of modern form, such as dogs, horses, and humanlike apes, evolved. The Miocene occurred after the Oligocene and before the Pliocene and is dated between 25-5 (23.7-5.3) million years ago. It is often divided into the Early Miocene epoch (23.7 to 16.6 million years ago), the Middle Miocene epoch (16.6 to 11.2 million years ago), and the Late Miocene epoch (11.2 to 5.3 million years ago). The Miocene may also be divided into six ages and their corresponding rock stages: from oldest to youngest these ages or stages are the Aquitanian, Burdigalian, Langhian, Serravallian, Tortonian, and Messinian.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mousterian industry CATEGORY: culture; chronology; artifact DEFINITION: A Middle Paleolithic culture that is defined by the development of a wide variety of specialized tools made with prepared-coreknapping techniques, such as spear points. It is named for the first such artifacts recovered from the lower rock shelter at Le Moustier, Dordogne, France. Stone tools, scrapers, and points found in the cave came to be recognized as the flintindustry present throughout Europe during first half of last glaciation (Würm) and associated with Neanderthal. The earliest Mousterian goes back to the Riss glaciation, but most of it comes into the late middle Würm glaciation, giving a total lifespan from 180,000 BC until c 30,000 BP. Flintwork of Mousteriantype (with racloirs, triangular points made on flakes, and -- in some variants -- well-made handaxes) has been found over most of the unglaciated parts of Eurasia, as well as in the Near East and North Africa (in the latter two areas, it constitutes the Middle Palaeolithic). Three major regional variants have been identified -- West, East, and Levalloiso-Mousterian, each with sub-groups. In certain industries, called Levalloiso-Mousterian, the tools were made on flakes produced by the Levallois technique. It was a progressive stage in the manufacture of stone tools. Mousterian peoples mainly lived in cave mouths and rock shelters.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An initial Jomonperiod shell midden near Tokyo, Japan, dated to 7290-7500 BC. The dated layer contained deep conical bowls with cord marks, bones of domestic dogs, bone and stone arrowheads, grinding stones, partially ground pebble-axes, bone fishhooks, and eyed needles.
Nene Valley ware
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Castor Ware CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A type of Roman pottery made by an organized industry on the banks of the River Nene west of Peterborough, by the Roman town of Water Newton (ancient Durobrivae), England, from the 2nd-4th centuries AD. (It was formerly known as Castor Ware.) The commonest shapes are drinking vessels and tumblers, made of a light clay with a dark slip, sometimes with a white decoration. Decoration was by applied scales, rouletting, or barbotine. Barbotine ornamentation is applied to pottery by squeezing a bag containing thin clayslip in the same way as a cake is iced today. It may be applied by brush or spatula as well. The best known are the Hunt Cups, showing dogs pursuing deer or hares, but human scenes also occur. It is a local ware, made in imitation of the dark, glossy Rhenish wares, and was perhaps the first fine ware to be produced locally in Roman Britain.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Important Viking ship burial, discovered in 1903 in south Norway in a peatmound. It was found with most of its timbers intact and its main burial chamber still filled with most of its contents. Among the objects in the chamber were the skeletons of a man (c 850-900 AD), dogs and horses, a chest containing oil lamps and personal items, a wooden bed and a sledge. Now reconstructed in the Oslo Ship Museum, the Oseberg ship is a fine example of a large sophisticated Viking warship. The ship itself was plank-built and had a pronounced keel, a large mast and a beautifully carved stern. It shed much light on everyday life of Vikings.
Pech de l'Azé
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Palaeolithictunnel cave and shelter in the Dordogne, southwest France, with six Acheulian levels dating to the Riss glaciation, then six Mousterian levels dated to the Würm glaciation. Occupation is dated to c 232,000-53,000 years ago.
Peyrony, Denis (1869-1954)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: French prehistorian who discovered the cave art at Font de Gaume, Bernifal, and Teyjat and excavated at La Ferassie and Laugerie Haute. He proposed the Perigordian system and founded the prehistorymuseum of Les Eyzies. The La Ferassie skeletons are hominid fossils found in a rock shelter gravesite north of Bugue, Dordogne, Fr., by R. Capitan and D. Peyrony between 1909-1921, but not fully reported until 1934. The fossils of La Ferassie are estimated to date from about 60,000 years ago and are associated with the Mousterian stone tool industry.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A huge cave in the Dordogne, southwest France, with Mesolithic levels (Sauveterrian and Tardensoisian) at the entrance dating from 9150-8370 bp. Deep inside this large cave system are black paintings and engravings in which mammoth predominates from the Magdalenian. There has been much controversy on which of the cave's paintings and engravings are authentic and which are modern.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Study of the interaction of pedogenic and geomorphic processes to interpret landscapes. The physical context of archaeologicalmaterial is determined and evaluated by soil geomorphic techniques.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: Physical arrangement of sediment into peds (a natural soilaggregate) as the result of pedogenesis (reproduction by young or larval animals). Soil has a structure" on which its porosity-permeability depends. Soilstructure is built up by alternate moistening and drying and plant roots contribute greatly by opening pores between soil aggregates. The stability of aggregates increases with humus content especially humus that originates from grass vegetation."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Sothis, Sirius CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: Personification of Sirius, or the Dog Star -- a woman with a star on her head.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: In ancient Egypt, the civil year was a quarter of a day too short in relation to the rising of Sothis (Sirius), the Dog star, so that the new year advanced by one day every four years; New Year's Day and the rising of Sothis coincided again only after approximately 1,460 years. Period elapsing between each such rising is known as Sothic cycle. The error with respect to the 365-day year and the heliacal risings of Sirius amounted to one day every four tropical years, or one whole Egyptian calendar year every 1,460 tropical years (4 365), which was equivalent to 1,461 Egyptian calendar years. After this period the heliacal rising and setting of Sothis would again coincide with the calendar dates. The dates for the start of each Sothic cycle are fortunately known because the Roman historian Censorinus fixed the coincidence of New Year's Day and heliacal rising of Sothis in 139 AD. Taking into account a slight difference between a Sothic year and a year of the fixed stars, the years 1322, 2782, and 4242 BC are taken as starting points of a Sothic cycle. Sothis appeared immediately preceded the Nileflood and was important in the Egyptian calendar; the cycle is strictly not of Sothis, which did not vary, but of the civil calendar.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A term sometimes used to describe Lower and Middle Palaeolithicflake industries which lack handaxes, bifaces, and carefully retouched implements. Originally the term was coined for the industries from the lower levels at La Micoque (Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, the Dordogne, France), but it has subsequently been applied to industries over a wide geographical and chronological range. The layers which probably belong to the penultimate glacialperiod were assigned to a Tayacianculture. The culture is also described as a primitive flake-tooltradition of Israel, also, believed to be essentially a smaller edition of the Clactonianindustry.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Valley site in Puebla, Mexico, with human occupation from at least 7000 BC. This desert valley, 1800 meters above sea level, has one of the longest continuous sequences in Mesoamerica (ending 1520 AD). The earliest inhabitants were nomadic food-gatherers and hunters. Maize was grown by c 5000 BC, pottery was first made around 2300 BC, and settled village life may go back to the 3rd millennium BC (though it is not well attested before 1800 BC). Incipient agriculture phases gave way to reliance on domesticated foods. From the Pre-Classic period onwards, the valley was not as important as the richer and more fertile areas of Mexico. It was, before the Spanish conquest, a center of Mixteca-Puebla culture. The earliest phase is considered part of the Desert Tradition. The Ajuereado Phase (before 6500 BC) was characterized by small wandering groups engaged in hunting and gathering. In the El Riego Phase (6500-5000 BC) small groups gathered seasonally into larger groups, and grinding tools, weaving, and some plant cultivation occurred. The Coxcatlan Phase (5000-3500 BC) marked the appearance of larger semi-sedentary groups occupying fewer sites and engaged in agriculture. Artifacts include manos and metates and improved basketry. A significant change in settlement pattern occurs in the Abejas Phase (3500-2300 BC) with pit house villages occurring along the river terraces as year-round dwellings. New species of plant food, long obsidian blades, and possibly cotton appeared and there is increased hunting of small game. Pottery, which is a good index to the degree of permanence of a settlement (fragility makes it difficult to transport), was made in the Tehuacán valley by 2300 BC. The later phases (including Purron, 2300-1500 BC) represent a sedentary life, wide use of ceramics, and domestication of the dog.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Pre-Dogon people with large necropolises in Mali, Africa, of the 11th-16th centuries AD. The oldest wood sculptures to survive (dated 15th-17th centuries AD) were found in caves in the Bandiagara escarpment and are attributed to the Tellem. The figures, simplified and elongated in form, often with hands raised, seem to be the prototype of the ancestor figures that the Dogon carve on the doors and locks of their houses and granaries. Cotton and woolen cloth have also been found in the caves.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Two Palaeolithic caves occupied in the Magdalenianperiod in the northern Dordogne, southwest France. One has fine line engravings of animals on blocks of limestone.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A prehistoric subculture of the Eskimos that began in Alaska about 900 AD and spread as far as Greenland by 1000 AD. The culture was distributed throughout the northern Arctic from Siberia to Greenland, and ancestral to most of the historic Eskimo cultures of that area. The latest phase in the west dates to c 1300. Thule people lived in circular houses partially dug into the ground and roofed with whalebones, turf, and stone. Tools are mainly bone, ivory, antler, and polished slate rather than chipped stone and they made coarse impressed pottery (later replaced by soapstone vessels). They hunted and fished with harpoon points, used skin-covered boats (open ones = umiaks, closed ones = kayaks), and dog sleds for travel across land and ice. Thule made ornaments of ivory, bone, and stone with simple geometric designs. It was the final Eskimoculture of the Northern Maritime tradition. It either absorbed or supplanted the DorsetCulture of the central and east Arctic. The Thule were the Skraelings discovered by the Vikings in the 10th century AD.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Native American vehicle consisting of two joined poles (transversely connected wooden shafts) pulled by a horse or dog (dragged at an angle to the ground. Found in North America, it is believed to be the first vehicle used by humans.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Windmill Hill culture CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Neolithic causewayed camp north of Avebury, Wiltshire, England, the type site of the culture of the same name. The camp of c 3350 BC has three ditch circuits which are part of the Aveburycomplex of Neolithicritual monuments. Windmill Hill ware sensu stricto (decorated with grooves and pits), was closely followed by the oldest (Ebbsfleet) variant of Peterborough ware -- 3330 +/- 150. More recent levels have Peterborough styles, groovedware, and beaker sherds. An earthen long barrow has a radiocarbon date of 4030 +/- 150 and there is a cemetery of Bronze Age round barrows. This culture and that of Peterborough were the two first main food-growing and cattle-raising peoples. Stone axes, coarse scrapers, and pressure-flaked leaf-shaped arrowheads were used. They raised pigs, cattle, goats, and had dogs for herding; cereals were grown. The pottery is now divided into separate traditions (Grimston-Lyles Hill, Hembury, Abingdon), and the rest of the cultural content, causewayed camps, long barrows, leaf-shaped arrowheads and polished flint or other stone axes, is now regarded as simply 'British Neolithic'. The culture existed until c 2500 BC.