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DEFINITION: The first domesticated animal species; the earliest such site is the Upper Palaeolithic cave of Palegawra in Iraq, with a date of c 10,000 BC. Other early evidence is from the Mesolithic in Star Carr c 7500 BC, from Turkey c 7000 BC, and in America in a Late Pleistocene deposit at Jaguar Cave, Idaho. A number of different types of dogs can be recognized from depictions in Egyptian tombs. All domestic dogs appear ultimately to have been derived from the wolf. The dog is found in hunter-gatherer communities as well as early farming communities.
dog-leash technique
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of defining an archaeological recovery area by attaching a rope to a centrally located marker stake and tracing the boundary in a circle.
dog-tooth ornament
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An ornament consisting of a series of pyramidal flowers of four petals, typical of 13th century AD work.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of clay figurine, most often depicting a pregnant female, made in Japan during the Jomon period, c 5th-4th millennium to c 250 BC. The function of these figurines is unknown, but it is generally believed that they were some kind of fertility symbol and they are reminiscent of the rigidly frontal fertility figures produced by other prehistoric cultures. Archaeological evidence suggests they were aids in childbirth as well as fertility symbols. They are also found in simulated burials, indicating some kind of ceremonial function. Fired at a low temperature, they often have crumbly surfaces and many are painted red.
DEFINITION: The practice of marrying a person within one's own social unit, such as a clan or tribe.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An instrument consisting of an iron bar held horizontally at one end by an upright support, used to ensure the proper burning of a fire. A pair of these was put at each side of the hearth or fireplace to support burning wood; the end of a log could rest on the crosspiece, which was supported by two uprights. Decorative iron examples come from La Tene Iron Age contexts, mostly in graves. In a kitchen fireplace, the upright support might hold a rack in front for the spit to turn in.
DEFINITION: The interaction of the physical, chemical, and biological factors, processes, and conditions that cause a soil to evolve into a soil horizon.
Staraja Ladoga
DEFINITION: Major north Russian town founded in the 10th century on the left bank of the river Volkhow, 20 km from its outlet in Lake Ladoga close to the eastern end of the Baltic Sea. Although Scandinavian material has been found, the Russians firmly contend that the town is Slavic in character and origin and is seen by many as the precursor of Novgorod.

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