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Celtic field
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A term used for any small plot with low earthen banks formed around them, which were field systems of pre-Roman times in Britain and northwest Europe. These date to the Early Bronze Age (1800 BC), so it is a misnomer to attach 'Celtic' to them. Traces of these systems may still be visible where later agriculture has not removed them. The oldest examples in Britain are blocks of arable land (sometimes associated with farmsteads, hollow ways, stockades, and enclosures) divided into a patchwork of more or less square units. They are defined by lynchets at the upper and lower edges, and by slightly raised ridges at the sides. Similar fields are known from Scandinavia and the Netherlands.
Lancefield
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Lancefield Swamp
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A small swamp in south-central Victoria, Australia, containing bones of an extinct megafauna representing an estimated 10,000 individuals, dated to c 24,000 BC. Six species are represented, but Macropus titan, a giant kangaroo, predominates. A few stone tools have been found in the bone beds, indicating that men and megafauna were contemporary in the area, probably for 7000 years. Cut-marks on some bones have been interpreted as the teeth marks of the carnivorous predator Thylacoleo carnifex, an extinct marsupial carnivore.
Moore, Clarence Bloomfield (1852-1936)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: American archaeologist considered one of the forefathers of Americanist archaeology. He worked on the southeastern coast of North America with major contributions at Moundville, Alabama, and Poverty Point, Louisiana.
Sheffield plate
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Copper plated with silver, especially as produced in Sheffield from 1760 to 1840.
Smithfield
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A Later Stone Age industry and hunting and gathering culture of southern Africa, originally thought contemporary with the Wilton, but technologically different from it, and now referring to a complex between 1300-1700 AD. The culture was on the same level as that of the Mesolithic people of Europe or the modern Kalahari bushmen. The unifying feature of this industry was the almost complete absence of backed microliths and tiny semicircular scrapers.
Swanscombe, Barnfield Pit
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: British Lower Palaeolithic site on a terrace of the lower Thames Valley, North Kent, England, with a skull of possibly an archaic Homo sapiens with strong Neanderthal features. The skull bones are considerably thicker than those of modern European or Neanderthal skulls; the skull pieces may be the oldest of Homo sapiens found in Europe. More recent opinion holds that the skull is non-sapiens and has closer affinities with those of Neanderthal type. There is a succession of artifact-bearing strata of the Mindel-Riss interglacial period (400,000-200,000 years ago), with the earliest tools of Clactonian type. Middle Acheulian handaxes and a pointed biface assemblage were found in the Middle Gravel level and in the Upper Loam level, Middle Acheulian tools of a more evolved form and a refined ovate assemblage. The deposits contain useful environmental evidence, including abundant mollusk and mammal remains and large assemblages of stone tools.
Urnfield period
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Urnfield period; Urnfield; Urn culture, Urnfield complex
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A widespread group of related Bronze Age cultures practicing burial by cremation in pottery urns, at first in central and eastern Europe and later spreading to northern and western Europe. Such funerary urns were buried in a cemetery of urns (urnfields) and the practice dates from c 1300 BC to c 750 BC. Other features of the Urnfield period include copper-mining, sheet bronze metalworking, and fortified settlements. At the start of the Iron Age, inhumation once again became the dominant form of burial in many areas. A small pot with holes in it is often found interred with the urn, which may have been the ritual fire igniter or an incense burner. The Urnfield cultures succeeded the Tumulus culture in central Europe and developed into the Hallstatt Iron Age culture.
drained fields
CATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: Intensive form of agriculture in which fields are created by draining plots of swampy land.
field
CATEGORY: database design
DEFINITION: A space in a file dedicated to the storage of information about a particular attribute.
field archaeology
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: archaeological field survey; humps and bumps archaeology
CATEGORY: technique; branch
DEFINITION: The study of archaeological remains through observation and interpretation of what is in the field without recourse to excavation. Some features are readily seen and identifiable and others must be sought out or are found only by chance disturbance. The technique is associated with O.G.S. Crawford who demonstrated its methods and value. The three stages are observation (link with air photography) interpretation and accurate recording.
field notes
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A written account of archaeological research, usually kept by each investigator, recording all stages of research design, but especially the conduct of data acquisition. It is the written record containing firsthand, on-the-spot observations. Field notes are considered primary field data.
field operations journal
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A running record of activities and finds during an archaeological excavation.
field school
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A formal field archaeology experience under the supervision of trained professionals.
field specimen
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: FS
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An artifact found during fieldwork
field supervisor
CATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: The person reporting to the excavation director, who has immediate on-site supervisory responsibility for the excavating.
fieldwalking
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Systematic exploration of an area by a team of investigators, walking, collecting, and recording surface artifacts or noting earthworks and other phenomena.
fieldwork
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: field study
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Any form of archaeological research or exploration carried out in an actual setting in the natural environment - excavation, surveying, fieldwalking, etc. - rather than in a laboratory, museum, or other such facility. Some archaeologists call everything they do outdoors 'fieldwork', but others distinguish between fieldwork and excavation. Fieldwork, in the narrow sense, consists of the discovery and recording of archaeological sites and their examination by methods other than the use of the shovel and the trowel.
urnfield
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A type of cremation grave or cemetery in which the ashes of individuals were placed in pottery vessels or funerary urns. Sometimes unurned cremations may also be present.

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