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Denbigh Flint complex
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: An Arctic Small Tool Tradition flint industry found at Cape Denbigh, Iyatayet, Cape Krusenstern, Onion Portage, and other Alaskan sites. The typical artifacts are finely worked microblade tools (bladelets, small crescents), burins, and bifacially pressure-flaked points. The Denbigh complex had developed by c 3200 BC. The Arctic Small tool tradition spread eastwards over the whole Arctic zone from Alaska to Greenland and contributed to the earliest Eskimo cultures. Land mammals seem to have been the primary focus of subsistence activity.
Flint Creek flaking
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A characteristic flaking style of the Flint Creek culture which was accomplished by removing regular, deep, elongate, opposing pressure flakes from the blade edges. The application of this flaking style usually resulted in the formation of very fine biface serrations.
Swieciechow flint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A variety of flint from the Holy Cross Mountains of central Poland. It is dark gray to black with flecks of white or light gray. Exploited primarily by communities of the Funnel Beaker culture and distributed over a broad area in the Bug, Vistula, and Oder drainings. Commonly found in the form of very large blades up to one foot long, and axes.
Swieciechów flint
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: Variety of flint found in the Holy Cross Mountains of central Poland, used by the Funnel Beaker culture and distributed over a broad area. It was commonly made into very large blades and axes.
burnt flint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Flint which has been burnt. It is not necessarily worked.
chocolate flint
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A high-quality flint of the Holy Cross Mountains in Poland, used for artifacts from the Mesolithic to Early Bronze Age. It is homogeneous and has excellent flaking qualities.
conoidal theory of flint fracture
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The theory that ideally a cone will be punched out of a piece of flint when it is struck with sufficient force.
CATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A type of hard stone, often gray in color, found in rounded nodules and usually covered with a white incrustation. A member of the chalcedony group of water-bearing silica minerals, it was found from early use to fracture conchoidally and was ideal for making stone tools with sharp edges. It is chemically a quartz, but has a different microcrystalline structure. It can therefore be flaked readily in any direction and so shaped to many useful forms. It occurs widely, and where available was the basic material for man's tools until the advent of metal; it is commonest 'stone' of the Stone Age. The only types of stone preferred to it were obsidian and the tougher rocks used for ground tools in the Neolithic. The term is often used interchangeably with chert and also as a generic term denoting stone tools in the Old World. Nodules of flint occur commonly as seams in the upper and middle chalk of northwest Europe. During the Neolithic and Copper Age of Europe, flint workers recognized that flint from beds below ground were of superior quality to surface flint, especially for the manufacture of large tools such as axes. These beds were exploited by sinking shafts and then excavating galleries outwards. Flint mines are known from many areas of Europe and good examples occur in Poland (Krzemionki), Holland, Belgium (Spiennes) and England (Grimes Graves).
flint scatter
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A general term applied to collections of worked flint, stone, debitage, and associated raw material gathered up from the surface of ploughed fields or disturbed ground. Such collections range in size from a few dozen through to many thousands of pieces, and may have been collected from areas of any size from a few metres across to several hectares. As such they do not represent distinct kinds of archaeological site but rather the archaeological manifestation of many different kinds of activity; their unity is a product of the way material has been recovered rather than the processes by which it was created in the first place. Much work has been devoted to characterizing flint scatters in terms of what they represent. It is now clear that some are caused by the erosion of underlying features and deposits which relate to a vast range of activities including settlements, stoneworking sites, and middens. In other cases the scatters reflect episodes of activity in the past that involved little more than the deposition of material on the contemporary ground surface which has subsequently become incorporated into the topsoil through natural and anthropogenic formation processes.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: flint-knapping, knapping
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: The technique of striking flakes or blades from a large flint stone (core or nucleus) and the shaping of cores and flakes into tools. The most commonly used stone was flint (chert), a hard, brittle stone, commonly found as nodules in limestone areas, that breaks with a conchoidal fracture. Flintknapping began with the simple striking of one stone against another. Later methods include the use of antler and wooden strikers for both direct and indirect percussion, and bone and antler pressure-flaking tools.
flintlock musket
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A musket fired by use of a flintlock. A gunflint is held in the lock which on pulling the trigger pushes back the pan cover creating sparks which set off the powder in the pan causing a flame to go through and set off the charge in the barrel.
flintlock pistol
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A pistol fired by use of a flintlock. A gunflint is held in the lock which on pulling the trigger pushes back the pan cover creating sparks which set off the powder in the pan causing a flame to go through and set off the charge in the barrel.
gun flint
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: gunflint, gun-flint
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A square blade-segment of flint used to ignite the powder charge of a flint-lock gun; a piece of this stone, esp. as flaked or ground in ancient times to form a tool or weapon. a piece of flint used with steel to produce an igniting spark
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A shaped flint used in flintlocks to create the spark to fire the gun.

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