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DEFINITION: A cemetery of cremation burials of the 1st century BC discovered in the 1880s in the county of Kent, England. It was excavated by Sir Arthur Evans, who identified the grave goods as belonging to the Iron Age Belgae. It is thought to represent the arrival of Belgic peoples fleeing from Gaul in advance of Caesar's army. Aylesford and Swarling are now the type sites of that culture in southeastern England. There was urned cremation in flat graves and the use of wheel-thrown pots with pedestal bases and horizontal cordon ornament. Brooches (fibula), wooden stave-built buckets, and bronze have also been found. The culture survived for a time after the Roman conquest in 43 AD.
Binford, Lewis R. (1931-2011)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: An influential contemporary Americanist archaeologist, considered by many to be the father of the new archaeology. His books include "In Pursuit of the Past" (1983) "Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths" (1981) "An Archaeological Perspective" (1972) and "New Perspectives in Archaeology" (1968).
DEFINITION: A parish in Wiltshire, England, that is the site of a monastery that existed in the late 7th century and the Saxon Church of St. Lawrence, dated in the early 8th century and discovered and carefully restored in 1856. St. Lawrence Church is possibly the finest and best-preserved Anglo-Saxon church in England.
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: An interstadial of the Devensian cold stage (the last glaciation), of c 61,000 bp according to radiocarbon dating - though it could be older.
Clyde-Carlingford tombs
DEFINITION: A series of megalithic chamber tombs in southwestern Scotland and northern Ireland with some radiocarbon dates before 3000 BC, an early stage of the Neolithic. They are sometimes described as segmented gallery graves, since they have subdivided rectangular chambers. Another important characteristic was a concave or semicircular forecourt. In some of the Irish examples, this was oval or circular and they are described as court cairns. The overlying cairns are long and either oval, rectangular, or trapezoidal in shape. Collective inhumation was the normal practice, although cremation sometimes occurred in Ireland.
Crawford, O.G.S. (1886-1957)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: British archaeologist who made many contributions to the development of the field - including being the first exponent of the mapping of distributions, of air photography, of field archaeology, of the national mapping of antiquities, and of enlightening the public. He was the editor of the popular journal Antiquity for its first 31 years and Archaeological Officer of the Ordnance Survey, where he was largely responsible for the high standard of mapping of archaeological sites in Britain.
Evans, Clifford (1920-1981)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: American archaeologist working in the Amazon with his wife, Betty Meggers. They investigated Ecuador, Venezuela, British Guiana, and Brazil, and provided the chronology and cultural definitions of prehistoric cultures of the region.
Ford, James Alfred (1911-1968)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: American archaeologist who worked mainly in southeastern US and developed the technique of seriation of chronological ordering. He established the archaeological sequence of ceramic typology, seriation, and stratigraphy of coastal Peru. Ford argued that archaeological types were imposed on data by the classifier.
Oxfordshire ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Pottery made mostly in the vicinity of Oxford in a variety of fabrics. Vessels include distinctive types of mortaria, PARCHMENT WARE, and red color-coated ware in the Samian tradition. This centrally placed industry became one of the largest and most important in Britain during the 4th century AD.
Stamford ware
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: An Anglo-Saxon pottery industry centered around Stamford in Lincolnshire, England, that produced fine glazed ceramics in the 9th-13th centuries. The buff wares included characteristic spouted pitchers and jugs which were much in demand in England and were sometimes traded abroad.
DEFINITION: Town in Norfolk, England, which was a Burhs created by King Alfred in the 9th century. There are well-preserved Saxon defenses, traces of narrow cobbled streets bordered by large and smaller buildings, substantial rectangular timber buildings, industrial workshops. Metalworking was carried out and Late Saxon wheel-made pottery (Thetford ware) was mass-produced.
Thetford ware
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Mass-produced wheel-turned late Saxon pottery manufactured in workshops near Thetford in Norfolk, England, from the late 9th century through to the early 12th century. The fabric is hard and sandy, grey to buff in color. The products are mainly cooking pits and jars with limited rouletting and applied thumb-strip decoration.
CATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: A shallow part of a body of water that may be crossed; the commonest route across a river is often a ford.

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