(View exact match)forgingCATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: In metalworking, the heating of a metal to soften it and then working it by hammering. It is a process used for the working of iron and steel after smelting. Though copper and other metals can be worked cold with occasional annealing this is not a suitable procedure for iron and steel. Forging involves the heating of the bloom to red heat and hammering. This would be carried out on a flat anvil with a hammer to remove impurities and the remains of slag. The resulting bars of iron could then be thinned down and hammered into shape again continuously heating the iron and hammering while red-hot. During the forging process iron can be bent flanges or other features introduced or sheet metal produced.
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DEFINITION: The spongy mass of material made up of iron and slag, produced from the initial smelting of iron ore. The slag and impurities are mostly driven off in preliminary forging. To produce useful iron, bloom must be hammered at red heat to expel the stone and add a proportion of carbon to the metal. The term also refers to a mass of iron after having undergone the first hammering or an ingot of iron or steel, or a pile of puddled bars, which has been passed through one set of 'rolls', made into a thick bar, and left for further rolling when required for use.damasceningSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: damaskeening
DEFINITION: The art of incrusting one metal on another, in the form of wire, which by undercutting and hammering is completely attached to the metal it ornaments. The process of etching slight ornaments on polished steel wares is also called damascening. Although related to pattern-welding, this technique used in the manufacture of sword blades probably developed independently. First a high-carbon steel is produced by firing wrought iron and wood together in a sealed crucible; the resulting steel, or wootz, consists of light cementations in a darker matrix, and this, together with a series of complicated forging techniques at relatively low temperatures produced the delicate 'watered silk' pattern with the alternating high- and low-carbon areas. Damascene steel was very strong and highly elastic.ironCATEGORY: geology
DEFINITION: A ductile, malleable, magnetic metallic element, used to make artifacts of both practical and decorative function. Its oxide form, hematite, is found naturally and the technique of ironworking was mastered around 1500 BC by the Hittites. Iron began to spread and replace bronze for man's basic tools and weapons - the start of the Iron Age. Early in the 1st millennium BC, iron industries were established in Greece and Italy, and by 500 BC, iron had replaced bronze for the manufacture of tools and weapons throughout Europe. The pre-Columbian New World, however, did not develop iron technology. Iron smelting is more complicated than for copper or tin, since the first smelt gives only slaggy lumps, the bloom. Hammering at red heat is then required to expel stone fragments and combine carbon with the iron to make in effect a steel; the resulting metal is far superior to copper or tin. The two basic methods of working it are by forging - hammering into shape at red heat - and casting. The Chinese used the latter method as early as the 5th century BC, but it was not employed in Europe until the Middle Ages. The first evidence of iron smelting in Egypt dates to the 6th century BC. Large-scale steel manufacture depends on the production of cast iron, which in Europe dates only from the 14th century AD. The West did not enter the 'Age of Steel' until the 19th century with the invention of the Bessemer and Siemens processes, which are industrial processes for obtaining liquid metal of any desired carbon content by the decarburization of cast iron. Steel was made in China within a few centuries of the first known use of smelted iron. In principle, modern techniques descended from China's casting techniques.laminatingCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The production of a high-quality metal tool or weapon by repeatedly forging out a blank form, folding the metal over and forging it again so that qualities of malleability and hardness can be combined.metallurgical analysisCATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The study of metals. Metal artifacts and the tools or waste products of their manufacture are examined to reconstruct manufacturing processes, the source of raw materials, and the usage. This may be done by the various techniques of chemical analysis, or may involve metallographic examination under a microscope. In the case of copper, bronze, and other non-ferrous metals, such analysis may yield information about alloys, casting, cold-working, and annealing. For iron and steel, there may be information about forging, carburization, quenching, and tempering.metallurgyCATEGORY: related field
DEFINITION: The art of working metals. Various techniques include annealing, repoussé, cire perdue, cold-working, casting, forging, carburization, quenching, tempering, soldering, smelting, welding, and creation of alloys.pattern weldingSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pattern-welding
DEFINITION: A post-Roman period technique of ironworking used particularly in the manufacture of weapons, mainly swords, developed to overcome the problems of brittleness caused by trying to diffuse carbon into iron. It produced blades that were both strong and decorative. In the manufacture of a sword, for example, the central part would typically be a core of carbon steel, with soft iron welded to it. Wire and strip metal, sometimes in varying combinations of type and color, were welded together and hammered out to produce a blade with patterned effect. The pattern derives from the difference in the carbon content between the uncarburized cores and the carburized surfaces of the welded strips, which is exposed during the forging and grinding of the weapon. A sword of this quality could have taken some 75 hours to make. The finest examples have been attributed to Frankish workshops, although notable examples are also known from Anglo-Saxon and Viking contexts.