(View exact match)gougeCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A chisel with a concave blade, used in carpentry, sculpture, and surgery; is a long, tapered, semi-cylindrical implement with a broad groove or hollow at the U-shaped, scooplike working end
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LaurentianSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Lake Forest Late Archaic
DEFINITION: Important Late Archaic tradition in northern New York and Vermont and the upper St. Lawrence valley, c 4000-1500 BC. Characteristic artifacts are broad-bladed, notched projectile points; bifaces, scrapers, and polished-stone tools (celts, gouges, plummets, slate knives or points). The tradition has phases such as Brewerton, Vergennes, and Vosburg.founder's hoardCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A collection of Bronze Age metalwork deposited together as a hoard but which comprises the tools, equipment, and stock-in-trade of a bronze-worker. In addition to scrap metal and ingots there are typically moulds, punches, hammers, sets, gouges, an anvil, and a polishing stone.sgraffito wareCATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Sgraffito ware is glazed vessels prepared first by incising decoration in the surface and then adding paint in the incisions prior to the application of glaze. There is a contrast between the brightly colored decoration and the overall color of the glazed vessel. Byzantine sgraffito wares date to the 11th-12th centuries in western Europe. It was not until the 16th-17th centuries that the technique was established in northern Europe. Sgraffito ware was produced by Islamic potters and became common throughout the Middle East. The 18th-century scratch blue class of English white stoneware is decorated with sgraffito patterns. Sgraffito ware was produced as early as 1735 by German settlers in colonial America. Sgraffito is also a form of fresco painting for exterior walls, done in Europe since the Middle Ages. A rough plaster undercoat is followed by thin plaster layers, each stained with a different color. These coats are covered by a fine-grain mortar finishing surface. The plaster is then engraved with knives and gouges at different levels to reveal the various colored layers beneath. It is also a glass-decorating technique.