(View exact match)grinderCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A tool, machine, etc. used for grinding something
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DEFINITION: A series of large mounds in northeastern Nigeria, which constitute the remains of early farming villages on the southern flood plain of Lake Chad and were occupied from about 600 BC-1200 AD. For the first five centuries, the Daima people only had polished stone axes and tools of bone, plus stone grinders and querns. There is pottery present from first occupation and evidence of domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats. Cultivation of sorghum was important, as was hunting and fishing. Iron was introduced the 1st-6th centuries AD. Some centuries later, however, Daima became part of a more wide-ranging trade system.Oenpelli SheltersCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A group of five sites in Arnhem Land, northern Australia (Padypadiy, Nawamoyn, Malangangerr, Tyimede I and II). Similar tool assemblages dating from 20,000-3000 BC show up at Malanganerr, Nawamoyn, Tyimede II - thick flake scrapers with steep edges, horsehoof cores, stone hammers, grinders, and waisted or grooved ground-edge axes. The ground-edge axes found at Malangangerr and Nawamoyn in levels dated to 20,000-16,000 BC are the oldest examples of edge-grinding known in Australia. The sudden appearance of estuarine species in shell middens of 5000-4000 BC in the Malangangerr and Nawamoyn deposits reflect rising sea levels. About 2000 years later, at all five sites, small stone points and scrapers appeared and continued until the present. There is also much bark painting in the area.PlussulienCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Neolithic quarry in Côtes-du-Nord, France, mined from c 4000-2000 BC for making polished stone axes of dolerite. Artifacts include hammerstones, grinders, and much toolmaking debris as well as hearths.PuntutjarpaCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A rock shelter in the Warburton Ranges of the Western Desert, Western Australia with occupation from c 8000 BC. It is part of the 'Australian desert culture' with stone tools in the earliest levels consisting of small stone scrapers (micro-adze flakes or thumbnail scrapers), large flake scrapers, and horsehoof cores. Larger adze flakes and seed grinders appeared around 5000 BC. Microliths (Bondi points and crescents) were present from 2000 BC. The earlier tool types persisted until the present, with late addition of flake knives and hand axes. The preponderance of adze flakes showed the significance of woodworking in the desert culture.