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adze hammer
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A shaft hole adze with additional hammer knob, normally polished stone.
ax-hammer
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: axe-hammer, axe-adze, hammer-axe
CATEGORY: artifact; lithics
DEFINITION: A tool consisting of an ax and a hammer combined, i.e. a shaft-hole ax having a hammer knob in addition. It was primarily a weapon of war, combining the functions of battle-ax and mace.
bar hammer technique
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: soft hammer technique, cylinder hammer technique
CATEGORY: artifact; lithics
DEFINITION: A stone-flaking technique using a bone, antler, wood, or other relatively soft material as a hammer to remove small, flat flakes from a core during flint knapping. These flakes have a characteristically long, thin form with a diffuse bulb of percussion.
bone hammer
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A bone that is used as a hammer in the removal of flakes from a core in the manufacturing of stone tools.
cold hammering
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cold working
CATEGORY: geology; artifact
DEFINITION: A technique for making metal artifacts in which the metal is shaped by percussion without heating. Most metals, such as copper, bronze, gold, and silver, are soft enough to be worked while cold. Operations such as hammering and beating could be carried out without any heating to make the metal softer. These softer metals, however, cannot be cold-worked indefinitely because the metal becomes brittle and eventually fractures. It can be counteracted by gentle heating called annealing. Annealing allows crystals within the metal to recrystallize and distribute the stress that has built up. Cold working can then go on until the metal becomes brittle again. Metallographic examination, the study of crystal structure, can give information about the cold working and annealing processes in the last stages of the making of an artifact. Pure gold is one of the few metals that can be cold worked indefinitely without annealing.
hammer
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A hand tool with a heavy rigid head and a handle; used to deliver an impulsive force by striking
hammer-dressed
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: hammering (n.)
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Having the surface (of a stone) roughly shaped or faced with a hammer
hammerhead mortarium
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A mortarium with a rim and flange that form a single unit, shaped like the head of a hammer, its centre meeting the body of the vessel at right angles.
hammerstone
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: A hard stone used as a hammer during the knapping of flint and other stone, for processing food, breaking up shells or bones, etc.
hard hammer technique
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: hard-hammer percussion
CATEGORY: artifact; lithics
DEFINITION: The use of a hammerstone to remove flakes during knapping. Hard hammer flakes are short and deep with a prominent bulb of percussion.
soft hammer technique
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: bar hammer technique, cylinder hammer technique, soft-hammer technique
CATEGORY: lithics
DEFINITION: The use of a hammer that is softer than the material being hammered or struck. The hammer would be made of angler, bone, wood, or other soft material and used to remove flat flakes from flint. These flakes have a characteristic appearance: long, thin, with a diffuse bulb of percussion.

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