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Gangetic hoard
CATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Any hoard of copper objects found in the Ganges basin in India. The main types of objects are flat and shouldered axes, bar chisels, barbed harpoons, antenna-hilted swords, hooked spears, and anthropomorphic objects. Associations with ochre-colored pottery suggest a date of the 2nd millennium BC.
coin hoard
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A group of coins deliberately deposited together.
copper hoard
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A hoard of copper artifacts, many of which occur in the Ganges-Yamuna doab (alluvial plain) and in the area south of the lower Ganges, the former occasionally associated with ochre-colored pottery. The hoards, dated broadly to the 2nd millennium BC, include flat axes, anthropomorphous axes, barbed harpoons, and sword blades. They have been cited as evidence of the Vedia arrival by some. Other copper hoards with different artifact typologies also occur elsewhere in India and Pakistan.
founder's hoard
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A collection of Bronze Age metalwork deposited together as a hoard but which comprises the tools, equipment, and stock-in-trade of a bronze-worker. In addition to scrap metal and ingots there are typically moulds, punches, hammers, sets, gouges, an anvil, and a polishing stone.
hoard
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Any collection of objects buried at one time; a deliberate deposit of complete and / or broken objects buried in the ground for subsequent recovery or as a symbolic act. A hoard often included valuables or prized possessions. Many hoards represent the personal property of individuals, buried for safety at a time of threat. Hoards are a useful source of evidence for archaeologists, because they provide considerable quantities of material and, except in the case of some votive hoards, that material represents a true association. Various classes are distinguished according to their method of accumulation. A personal hoard consists of an individual's personal property buried for safety and not recovered. A merchant's hoard will contain new objects ready for sale. A founder's hoard by contrast will contain obsolete, worn out, or miscast objects, and frequently cake metal as well, all of it awaiting melting down and recasting. A votive hoard is rather different in that the objects were deposited, possibly over a long period of time, in temples or caves, buried, or thrown into water as religious offerings, with no intention of recovery. A hoard of loot is self-explanatory. Bronze Age hoards provide much of the evidence for the period.
merchant's hoard
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A collection of Bronze Age metalwork deposited together, possibly either for ceremonial reasons or to hide it in times of danger, comprising mainly new or recently manufactured objects ready to be traded.
smith's hoard
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: founder's hoard
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Term applied to collections of Bronze Age metalwork found in northern Europe that appear to represent the tools and stock-in-trade of a metalworker. Thus they typically contain broken tools and weapons cut up for recycling, ingots, moulds, and tools for working metal. It is speculated that these hoards were deposited or concealed by itinerant smiths for safety, but for whatever reason they were never able to recover them

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