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Homer (9th or 8th century BCE?)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: A Greek writer of which little is known other than his name is attached to the two great epic poems of ancient Greece, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homeric archaeology is the study of the poems attributed to Homer, attempting to match the description of an object, building, social structure, or custom within the poems to the archaeological record. Heinrich Schliemann is the most well-known Homeric archaeologist, having discovered Troy.
DEFINITION: Important Bronze Age site in Boeotia, central Greece, home of the legendary King Minyas. Extensive remains of the Early and Middle Helladic periods survive, though the Mycenaean levels are badly eroded. A large frescoed Late Helladic structure is probably a palace, and to the east lies the tholos tomb known as the Treasury of Minyas. About 20 km to the east is the huge Mycenaean fortress of Gla, defended by walls of cyclopean masonry 6 meters thick. This fortress and a number of subsidiary forts must have defended the eastern approaches to the Copais basin, which, according to ancient literary tradition, was drained and cultivated by the people of Orchomenos in Mycenaean times. There are impressive fortifications of the Classical city and a 4th century BC theater. Linear B has been found in inscriptions on pots and jars at Orchomenos.
DEFINITION: A permanent shelter or living place. In the Stone Age, man was a hunter-gatherer and nomad, sheltering wherever he/she could. The earliest known homes of the Upper Palaeolithic are the Creswell Crags caves dating back to Mousterian times around 115 000 BC.
DEFINITION: A term used to describe a relatively stable state of equilibrium or a tendency toward such a state between the different but interdependent elements or groups of elements of an organism, population, or group. In systems thinking, it is used to describe the action of negative feedback processes in maintaining the system at a constant equilibrium state.

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