CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A period during which the Chavin culture flourished in the central Andes of South America and was integrated into the northern highlands and coastal region of Peru, c 900-1 BC (also said to be c 1200-300 BC). It is one of a seven-period chronological construction used in Peruvian archaeology. It coincides with the duration of the Chavin style and its derivatives, such as Cupisnique. Following this, there was regional differentiation culminating in the complex cultures of the Early Intermediate Period.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A soil horizon from which minerals, humus, or plant nutrients have been lost. It has lost the material in solution or suspension by pedogenesic processes. The most common eluvial horizon is E.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: gleying CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A soil horizon characterized by blue, gray, or olive coloring due to excessive moisture in anaerobic conditions; a waterlogging of soil. Gleying may result from a raised water table or from impeded drainage within the soil profile; the latter condition occurs in some podzols. Gley horizons and gley soils are conducive to preservation of organic remains.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: horizon style CATEGORY: term; artifact DEFINITION: Any artifact, art style, or other cultural trait that has extensive geographical distribution but a limited time span. The term, in anthropology, refers to the spread of certain levels of cultural development and, in geology, the layers of natural features in a region; in soilscience a horizon is a layer formed in a soil profile by soil-forming processes. The main meaning, however, refers to a phase, characterized by a particular artifact or artistic style that is introduced to a wide area and which may cross cultural boundaries. Provided that these 'horizon markers' were diffused rapidly and remained in use for only a short time, the local regional cultures in which they occur will be roughly contemporary. The term is less commonly used now that chronometric dating techniques allow accurate local chronologies to be built. Examples of art styles which fulfill these conditions is called a 'horizon style' -- such as Tiahuanaco or Chavín.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Any technique used to locate and record artifacts, ecofacts, and features in horizontal space.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: horizontal (area) excavation CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The excavation of a site to reveal its horizontal extent. Such an excavation is designed to uncover large areas of a site, especially settlement layouts.
horizontal feature interface
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The area associated with upstanding units of stratification and marking the interfacial levels to which the units have been dug.
horizontal layer interface
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The surface of a natural or manmade layer, a unit of stratification. It takes the layer number of the deposit with which it is associated.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A structure on which woven cloth is manufactured, comprising a frame set horizontally across vertical supports. The warp threads were tied across the frame from front to back so that they could be wound out as weaving proceeded. The warp was usually arranged so that alternate threads could be raised and lowered, thus allowing the weaver to pass a shuttle containing the weft thread from side to side across the warp. The horizontal loom was developed later than the UPRIGHT LOOM and provided the basis for the development of mechanical looms during later medieval and post-medieval times.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Chronological sequences based on successive horizontal displacements, such as sequential beach terraces. Stratigraphy is by definition obtained from superposed deposits, but other circumstances can be treated in the same way. For example, the oldest burials are likely to be those nearest the settlement, the top of a hill, or some other favored position. The later ones will be progressively further out as the cemetery expands. The concept can be a helpful tool in the interpretation of a site.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A soil horizon resulting from the deposition of minerals, humus, or plant nutrients, washed down from higher up in the profile. The most common illuvial horizon is the B horizon. Its opposite is eluvial horizon.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Upper Formative; Inca Period CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A division of time in central Andean chronology, 1450-1533 AD, which corresponds to the Inca Empire's expansion from Cuzco. It is the most recent and briefest period of a chronological construction of Peruvian archaeology. The early date marks the point at which territorial expansion was virtually complete; the late date marks the passing of control to the Spanish under Pizarro. Archaeologists have come to distinguish the various peoples and civilizations by descriptive terms -- the Late Preceramic, the Initial (or Lower Formative) Period, the Early Horizon, the Early Intermediate Period, the Middle Horizon, the Late Intermediate Period, and the Late Horizon.
law of original horizontality
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: principle of original horizontality CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: The principle that all sedimentary layers formed in bodies of water were originally deposited horizontally as a result of gravity and other physical phenomena.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A division of time in Andean/Peruvian South America, c 600-1000 AD, used to refer to the first imperialistic domination of area under the unifying forces of Tiahuanaco and Huari (Wari) cultures. It was the time of the first large-scale imperial expansions. During the first half of the Middle Horizon, in central Peru, the Huaricame to control the highlands and possibly the coast. The remains of large groups of food-storage buildings in the Huari strongholds suggest military activity like that of the late Inca. Huari is closely linked in its art style to the monuments of the great site of Tiahuanaco, located on Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Tiahuanaco expanded over the altiplano and adjacent regions of Bolivia, southern Peru, and northern Chile. The principal buildings of Tiahuanaco include the Akapana Pyramid, a huge platform mound or stepped pyramid of earth faced with cut andesite; a rectangular enclosure known as the Kalasasaya, constructed of alternating tall stone columns and smaller rectangular blocks; and another enclosure known as the Palacio. They practiced the raised-fieldsystem of agriculture. Some Tiahuanacoeffigy vessels have been discovered at Huari, but otherwise they seem to have been independent entities. In the second half of the Middle Horizon, the political and economic systems slowly collapsed. The decline of these two states was followed by a period of more localized political power. The Late Intermediate Period began about 1000 AD.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A brief period in the Middle Bronze Age of southwest Britain marked by the occurrence, in hoards, of tools and bronze ornaments which owe their inspiration to types current in north Germany and Scandinavia from c 1400 BC. These 'foreign' objects include torcs, coiled finger rings, ribbed bracelets, knobbed sickles, and square-mouthed socketed axes. In Devon, Somerset, and Sussex, hoards of the Ornament Horizon also contain native spearheads, palstaves, and quoit-headed pins. This influx seems to have given a boost to the native bronzeindustry.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A layer in a soil developed through the natural weathering of geological and archaeological surfaces. It differs from related layers chemically, physically, or biologically. Sequences of related soil horizons make up the soil profile.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: A Horizon, A-Group CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A term created by American archaeologist George Reisner to refer to a semi-nomadic Nubian Neolithicculture of the mid-fourth to early third millennium BC. The term has evolved into a horizon" because there was also a C Group and the term was misleading that there were two separate ethnic groups rather than two phases of Nubian material culture. Traces of the A group which may have evolved from the Abkanculture survive throughout Lower Nubia. An important site is Afyeh near Aswan Sayala and Qustul. There is evidence among the grave goods that the A Group was engaged in regular trade with the Egyptians of the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods. The A Group was eventually replaced by the C Group during the Old Kingdom. The existence of a B Group has now been rejected."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: acroterion, acroters, acroterium, akroterion CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: The pedestals, often without bases, placed on the center and sides of pediments for supporting a statue. Also, a decoration (often a statue) or ornament mounted with plinth on the pinnacle and gable ends (the horizontal coping or parapets) of a classical building.
CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: An earth god of the Early Dynastic period, most often represented as a form of double-sphinx of two lions back to back. Aker's symbolism was closely associated with the junction of the eastern and western horizons in the underworld.
All Cannings Cross
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A n Early Iron Age site in Wiltshire, southern England. The settlement contained rectangular houses and evidence of ironsmelting. Fine haematite-coated bowls with horizontal furows above the carinations have been found.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in the Indus Valley in Pakistan, probably dating to the early 3rd millennium. It was the first site to be recognized as belonging to the Early Harappan Period when excavated by Majumdar in 1929. Its name has been given to a style of hand- and wheel-made painted pottery found in its Chalcolithic levels and on tells over much of Sind and up into the hills of Baluchistan. These tall globular beakers of fine buff ware are painted with geometric designs in black between red horizontal bands. Chert and some copper were used for tools and the architecture was in mud-brick. Fractional burial was the practice for the dead. Periods I and II represent the pre-Harappan settlement of agricultural farmers, who kept cattle, sheep, goat and donkey, but also hunted (or herded) gazelle. In the later part of Period II Harappan ceramics appear alongside Amri wares; Period III represents a full mature Harappan occupation. The culture was gradually succeeded by that of the Indus civilization. The uppermost levels contained Jhukar and Jhangar material.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: The chronological systems of the Central Andes area with two main stages, Preceramic and Ceramic. The Ceramic is broken down into: Initial Period, 1900-1200 BC, Early Horizon 1200-300 BC, Early Intermediate Period 300 BC-700 AD, Middle Horizon 700-100, Late Intermediate Period 1100-1438/1478, and Late Horizon 1438-1532. These horizon periods are times of widespread unity in cultural traits. Intermediate periods are times of cultural diversification.
Apollo 11 Cave
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cave in southern Namibia near the confluence of the Orange and Great Fish Rivers which has a long sequence of industries dating from the Middle Stone Age. There is a series of detached rock slabs with rock paintings dating between 28,450-26,350 years old, among the oldest dated paintings in the world and the oldest dated rock art of southern Africa. Later horizons in the Apollo 11 Cave show a scraper-based industry in the 13th-8th millennia BC that is related to the Albany industry of southern Cape Province. Microlithic findings begin in the 8th millennium.
architectural unit method
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method in which observable architectural zones of predefined structures are excavated as a single horizontal provenience. An example of this is a room in a palace being treated as its own excavationarea.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: epistyle CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: In Greek and Roman architecture, that part of an entablature which rests immediately upon the abacus on the capital of a column or pilaster. It is also the term used for the horizontal beam between columns, or between a column and a wall, which supports a ceiling. A third definition is a collective name for the various parts that surround a doorway, arch, or window (jambs, lintel, moldings).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: extensive excavation, open excavation, open-area excavation CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method of excavation in which the full horizontal extent of a site is cleared and large areas are open while preserving a stratigraphic record in the balks between large squares. A gradual vertical probe may then take place. This method is often used to uncover houses and prehistoricsettlement patterns. Areaexcavation involves the opening up of large horizontal areas for excavation, used especially where single period deposits lie close to the surface. It is the excavation of as large an area as possible without the intervention of balks and a gridsystem. This technique allows the recognition of much slighter traces of ancient structures than other methods. On multi-period sites, however, it calls for much more meticulous recording since the stratigraphy is revealed one layer at a time.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Marne ware CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Pottery type of the 4th century AD, usually with a red color-coat. Vessels are decorated with horizontal bands of impressed geometric patterns, executed with a roller stamp. The ware was made in the Argonne in northeast Gaul. Its distribution in Britain is mainly confined to the south and southeast band.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A cemetery of cremation burials of the 1st century BC discovered in the 1880s in the county of Kent, England. It was excavated by Sir Arthur Evans, who identified the grave goods as belonging to the Iron Age Belgae. It is thought to represent the arrival of Belgic peoples fleeing from Gaul in advance of Caesar's army. Aylesford and Swarling are now the type sites of that culture in southeastern England. There was urned cremation in flat graves and the use of wheel-thrown pots with pedestal bases and horizontal cordon ornament. Brooches (fibula), wooden stave-built buckets, and bronze have also been found. The culture survived for a time after the Roman conquest in 43 AD.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Asmaska Moghila CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A tellsite in southern Bulgaria of the Neolithic and Copper Age. Several settlement horizons, building levels of early NeolithicKaranovo I culture, building levels of Karanovo V and VI cultures, and building phases of Early Bronze Age Karanovo VII culture have been unearthed. The layouts of the villages may yield architectural detail for the whole sequence.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: B Horizon CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A term no longer used to describe the final stages of the Neolithic A Group in Nubia (c 2800-2300 BC), prior to the beginning of the C Group phase. In soils, the B horizon lies immediately beneath the A horizon and may reach a depth of 65 to 90 centimeters (26 to 35 inches). It is a zone of more moderate weathering in which there is an accumulation of many of the products removed from the A horizon.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A simple loom known in pre-Columbian America and in Asia and still used in western Mexico, Guatemala, and other places in Central America. A continuouswarp thread passes between two horizontal poles, one attached to a support and the other to a seated weaver, who adjusts the tension by moving forwards or backwards. The Navajo Indians wove blankets on a two-bar loom for centuries. Throughout the Caroline Islands (except Palau), strips of banana and hibiscus fiber are woven on backstrap looms.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Tell Balawat CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of ancient Imgur-Enlil, east of Mosul in northern Iraq. Excavators have found the palace of Shalmaneser II and a pair of great bronze gates (now in the British Museum). These huge wooden gates were part of a set of three with evidence of the campaigns of Assurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III. They were decorated with horizontal bands of metal 11 inches high, each modeled by a repoussé process, with a double register of narrative scenes. The bronze doors from the Assyrian town portray the course of Shalmaneser's campaigns and undertakings in rows of pictures. Balawat was the country retreat of the Assyrian kings in the first half of the 9th century BC.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A settlement on the slopes of the Avala Hill in Belgrade, Serbia. One of the horizons has been dated to c 3760 BC. The culture is Vinca and some complete house plans have been recovered with details of food preparation, weaving,, working pits, etc. Pottery with incised signs might indicate ritual activities.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A statistical method of representing numerical data in a diagram by rectangles of equal width but of varying height or length, drawn side-by-side along an axis. An assemblage of different types of flinttool can be represented with bars on the horizontal scale, and the actual numbers or percentage of the total of each type recorded on a vertical scale. The bar chart gives an immediate visual representation of the components of the assemblage. A bar chart differs from a histogram, the latter representing different measurements of the same attribute and therefore the horizontal scale is not arbitrary but ordered.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: batter (v.) CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: The slope of a wall, pier, terrace, or bank, from the perpendicular; a receding slope, etc. The term also refers to the slope of a structure built specifically to increase the stability of a wall; usually subterranean. This functional and decorative technique was regularly employed for the walls of mastaba tombs as well as the enclosure walls of Egyptian temples, where it was associated with pan bedding and sectional construction. Inclination is expressed as one foot horizontally per vertical unit (in feet).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: bell beaker (see also funnel beaker, protruding foot beaker) CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A simple pottery drinking vessel without handles, more deep than wide, much used in prehistoric Europe. The pottery was usually red or brown burnished ware, decorated with horizontal panels of comb- or cord-impressed designs. It was distributed in Europe from Spain to Poland, and from Italy to Scotland in the years after 2500 BC and the international bell-beaker is particularly widespread, though uncommon in Britain. In Britain there are local variants, the long-necked (formerly A) beakers of eastern England and the short-necked (formerly C) beakers of Scotland. There are local developments elsewhere, such as the Veluwe beakers in Holland. Beaker vessels are commonly found in graves, which were often single inhumations under round barrows; commonly associated finds include copper or bronze daggers and ornaments, flint arrowheads, stone wristguards, and stone battle-axes. In many northern and western areas its users were the first to start coppermetallurgy. The widespread distribution of beaker finds has led to the frequent identification of a Beaker people and speculations about their origins.
CATEGORY: measure DEFINITION: A direction or relative position; a horizontal direction expressed in degrees east or west of a true or magnetic north or south direction.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: beveled (adj.) CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A surface or edge which slopes away from a horizontal or vertical surface; the angle or inclination of a line or surface that meets another at any angle but 90?
CATEGORY: geography DEFINITION: A type of wetlandecosystem characterized by wet, spongy, poorly drained peaty soil. The term also describes the communities of plants growing on acid waterlogged ground, as opposed to fen. Three main types of bog exist: valley bogs that remain waterlogged due to the concentration of drainage into a valley; raised bogs that form as large pillows of peat and are kept waterlogged by high rainfall; and blanket bogs that form through the growth of the organic horizons of gleyed podzols.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A zone of vertical change from one soil horizon to another. They are described in vertical distance -- as abrupt, clear, or gradual -- and the horizontal character as being smooth, wavy, or irregular.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: C Horizon, C-group CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A culture of Nubia between the Old and New Kingdoms (c 2494-1550 BC). The indigenous C Group people were subjected to varying degrees of social and economic influence from their powerful northern neighbors.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A complex of monuments of the Initial Period and Early Horizon on the north coast of Peru. There are 17 mounds on the Moche Valley site, with the most complexstructure at Huaca de los Reyes. It is a multi-level, U-shaped complex decorated with relief friezes, which inside is a series of structures, stairways, pillared halls, and a courtyard.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A large ceremonial site that was the principal center of the Nascaculture of Peru. There are 40 adobe mounds, likely to have been used only for religious ceremonies. It was built in Early Nasca periods but was used through Late Nasca and the Middle Horizon.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a national monument on the coast of the Chukchi Sea with a horizontal stratigraphy covering the whole of north Alaskan prehistory. Located on 114 ridges along ancient beach lines, the monument's remarkable archaeological sites illustrate the cultural evolution of the Arctic people, dating back some 4,000 years and continuing to modern Eskimos. There are campsites of 10 successive cultures, beginning with the Denbigh Flint Complex, followed by the Old Whaling culture, then by the Eskimo cultures known as Trails Creek-Chloris, Chloris, Norton, Near Ipiutak, Ipiutak, Birnirk, Western Thule, and late prehistoric. On the terrace behind the beaches were two more phases (Palisades I and II) which go back to c 8000 BC. The stratigraphy is visible as a sequence of strips, roughly parallel to the shoreline, with the oldest, Denbigh, being furthest from the present-day shoreline. This horizontal sequence, in combination with the vertical stratigraphy of Onion Portage, forms the most reliable chronological framework in Western Arctic prehistory.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: In architecture, the feature that most readily distinguishes the Classical order": the top member of a column pier antapilaster or other columnarform which supports a horizontal member (entablature) or arch above. A capital is usually made of wood or stone and its decoration was according to the Corinthian Doric or Ionic order."
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A stoneslab placed horizontally over a series of other stones, at the top of an arch, often as a roof. Some are large blocks used to span the walls of dolmens, cists, passage graves, and other megalithic chamber tombs.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An early village site on the southern end of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, dating to the Early and Middle Horizon. Late Chiripapottery of the Early Horizon Period (1800-200 BC) is decorated with cream on red color zones, separated by incised lines. Early pottery is a cream-on-white ware, decorated with geometric designs. The common form is a flat-bottomed, vertical-sided open bowl. The artistic style is linked to Pucara and Tiahuanaco. There is a series of rectangular rooms, some with underfloor stone-lined graves, arranged around a rectangular plaza. An unusual feature is the storage space between the double walls of some structures.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hotnica CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Tell settlement site of the Late Neolithic, c late 5th-early 4th millennium BC, in northern Bulgaria. The cultures found represent regional variants on Rumanian groups of the lower Danube Valley. There are three main occupation horizons: I, with pits and post holes and a rich potteryassemblage; II, Boianlevel with ceramics; and III, a complete village plan with over 15 houses. A hoard of 44+ gold ornaments was found in the third horizon.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Saturation, purity, or strength of color; in the Munsell system, chroma is the horizontal dimension, denoting the presence or absence of gray
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A lead-glazed English earthenware of the 15th-16th centuries. The earthenware is dark red with a black or brown metallic-appearing glaze and was called Cistercian because they were first excavated at Yorkshire Cistercian abbeys. The pottery forms were mainly drinking vessels, tall mugs, trumpet-shaped tygs (with 2, 4, or 8 handles), and tankards. The majority of the ware is undecorated, but some examples are distinguished by horizontal ribbing or by white slip ornamentation consisting of roundels or rosettes. Potteries producing these wares were at Abergavenny, Monmouthshire; Tickford, Derbyshire; and Wrotham, Kent.
classic orders of architecture
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: order of architecture CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: The Grecian Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian and the Roman Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders as defined by the particular type of column and entablature in one basic unit. A column consists of a shaft together with its base and its capital. The column supports a section of an entablature, which constitutes the upper horizontal part of a classical building and is itself composed of (from bottom to top) an architrave, frieze, and cornice. The form of the capital is the most distinguishing characteristic of a particular order. The five major orders are: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Any excavation designed primarily to reveal the horizontal and, by inference, functional dimensions of an archaeological site -- such as the extent, distribution, and patterning of buried data.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Horizon site in the Ayacucho Valley near Huari, Peru, which was probably a religious shrine. Two large offering deposits of Huariceramics have been found, including large beaker-shaped urns and painted face-neck jars, intentionally smashed, which have a distinctive polychrome decoration that is clearly Tiahuanaco-influenced, including iconography similar to that of the Gateway of the Sun.
CATEGORY: term; geology DEFINITION: The interface of surfaces between two successive stratigraphic levels, either vertical or horizontal. Various geological criteria are used to distinguish between two contact types: conformable and unconformable. Conformable contacts are deposit conditions not significantly different or interrupted from an adjacent unit. Unconformable contacts are surfaces of no deposit or erosion in an adjacent unit.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: archaeological context CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: The time and space setting of an artifact, feature, or culture. The context of a find is its position on a site, its relationship through association with other artifacts, and its chronological position as revealed through stratigraphy. Certain features or artifacts may be normally associated with particular contexts, for example a potterytype may be found in the context of certain burials. If such an artifact is found out of context, it may suggest the previous presence of a burial, the robbery of a burial, or a place of manufacture of the pots that accompanied burials. An artifact's context usually consists of its immediate matrix (the material surrounding it e.g. gravel, clay, or sand), its provenience (horizontal and vertical position within the matrix), and its association with other artifacts (occurrence together with other archeological remains, usually in the same matrix). The assessment of context includes study of what has happened to the find since it was buried in the ground.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A ceramichorizon of the Early Post-Classic Period beginning in central Mesoamerica after the fall of Teothihuacan. It was a distinctive red-on-buff painted ware and appeared in the early phases of both Tula and Cholula, and is a forerunner of the late Mazpan style.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: lattice decoration CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Ornamentation formed by a criss-cross of diagonal lines, described as acute-angled if the angle to the horizontal is more than 45 degrees and obtuse-angled if less than this
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cumulative graph; cumulative percentage frequency graph; ogive CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A technique of graphic representation which makes it possible to assess the degree of similarity between collections of tools or groups of sites. Along the horizontal x-coordinate are arranged the tools or characteristics in question, in accordance with a defined order corresponding to the type list" of the collections or sites. On the vertical y-coordinate their relative frequency is plotted. The diagram appears as series of steps each of which conveys the relative numerical importance of each tool or characteristic added to the relative frequency of the elements which precede it in the type list."
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Excavating and recording a trench in three dimensions, using both horizontal and vertical observations to reconstruct events at the site.
CATEGORY: culture; artifact DEFINITION: A style of pottery of the north coast of Peru during the Early Horizon, and a local variant of Chavín culture. It is most often associated with graves and is characteristically a polished gray-black ware with globular bodies, stirrup spouts, and reliefdecoration. Early Cupisnique tends to be strongly modeled by plastic manipulation of the surface. In later phases, red and black banding, separated by incision and life modeling, especially stylized felines, appear. The style dates from 900-200 BC and gave rise to three other styles: Salinar, Gallinazo, and Vicus.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: datum CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The point on an archaeological site from which all measurements of level and contour are taken. It is the reference point used for vertical and horizontal measurement. It can be chosen at random, at a place from which all or most of the site can be seen, and should be tied in to the national standard, usually sea level, by reference to the nearest survey point. Depths of features, of objects found in features, or simply contours, are leveled in with reference to the datum point, and are usually recorded as being a certain height 'below local datum'. Should variations in contour or the extent of the site prove too great for a single datum point, another can be used as long as it is leveled in with reference to the first. A site grid and excavation units are laid out or measured with reference to this point.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: An Egyptian term for the land of the dead, which was thought to be similar to Egypt itself, lying under the earth, and entered through the western horizon.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: dumpy CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: A surveyor's level composed of a short telescope fixed rigidly to a horizontally rotating table and a spirit level.
Early Intermediate period
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A period of development of distinctive regional cultures in the central Andes of South America, c 1-600 AD (also said to be c 300-600 AD). The period was characterized by nationalism, full population, first large-scale irrigation works in coastal valleys, interregional warfare, construction of forts, craft specialization, social class distinctions, rise of first great Peruvian cities. Two of the better-known cultures are the Moche and Nasca civilizations. The Middle Horizon emerged from these expansions.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A style of pottery current in many parts of the British Isles in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, with a bucket-shaped profile and thick, rather coarse, fabric. It is distinctive in having heavy applied decoration in horizontal and vertical bands around the upper portion of the body.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: In architecture, the horizontal moldings and bands supported by and located immediately above the columns of Classical buildings. The term also refers to similar structural supports in non-Classical buildings. The entablature is usually divided into three sections: the lowest band, or architrave, which originally took the form of a simple beam running from support to support; the central band, or frieze, consisting of an unmolded strip with or without ornament; the top band, or cornice, constructed from a series of moldings that project from the edge of the frieze. The styles of the entablature are different for the main orders of architecture: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. In the Doric order, it comprises the architrave above which were placed the alternating triglyphs and metopes. In the Ionic order, a continuousfrieze was placed above the architrave.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Horizon site in the Nasca Valley of Peru's south coast with an adobecompound and large cemeteries.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A basic area of horizontal control in an excavation; usually a test pit, trench, or a standard-sized square (grid).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: andiron CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: An instrument consisting of an iron bar held horizontally at one end by an upright support, used to ensure the proper burning of a fire. A pair of these was put at each side of the hearth or fireplace to support burning wood; the end of a log could rest on the crosspiece, which was supported by two uprights. Decorative iron examples come from La Tene Iron Age contexts, mostly in graves. In a kitchen fireplace, the upright support might hold a rack in front for the spit to turn in.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pre-Classic, Formative period; Preclassic CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A cultural stage in North America when agriculture and village settlement were developed, accompanied by pottery, weaving, stonecarving, and ceremonial objects and architecture. In the New World, especially Mesoamerica, it is also called the Pre-Classic period and preceded the Classic period. The period was also characterized by initial complex societies (chiefdoms) and long-distance trade networks. In Mesoamerica, it is divided into Early (2000-1000 BC), Middle (1000-300 BC), and Late (300 BC-300 AD). In Andea South America, the period is usually framed within the period 1800-1 BC -- and includes the Initial Period and Early Horizon. It begins with the introduction of ceramics. This occurred c 7600 bp in Amazonia and c 5200 bp in northwest Columbia.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Egyptian solid potterycones, 10-30 cm in length, which were placed at the entrances to tombs, often with the name and titles of the deceased on the flat, circular end. Found mainly in the Theban area of Middle Kingdom to Late Period dates (2125-332 BC), these cones were originally inserted in the brick-built tomb facade or tombpyramid to form horizontal rows. Most belong to the New Kingdom and the bulk of them to the 18th dynasty (1550-1295 BC).
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: Egyptian solid potterycones, 10-30 cm in length, which were placed at the entrances to tombs, often with the name and titles of the deceased on the flat, circular end. Found mainly in the Theban area of Middle Kingdom to Late Period dates (2125-332 BC), these cones were originally inserted in the brick-built tomb facade or tombpyramid to form horizontal rows. Most belong to the New Kingdom and the bulk of them to the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 BC).
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Decoration made by drawing the fingers or a tool across the body of a vessel, resulting in either a series of horizontal grooves or random groups of striations.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Horizon site in the Moche Valley of coastal Peru of a small local people. It may have been under control of the Huari empire but the valley was largely abandoned by the Mocheculture by this time.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Initial Period site occupied into the Early Horizon period, near Lima, Peru. There is a large U-shaped ceremonial formation and central mound estimated 3000-1800 BC. There is Chavín-like clay figurines and pottery.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A vertical-sided beaker, with horizontal bands of corrugations, cordons, or latticing. Of mid 1st century AD date. Some were Gallo-Belgic and others locally made in Britain. BUTT BEAKER.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: In pottery making, a continuous horizontal groove around the belly of a vessel.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: gley horizon CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: The process of waterlogging of soil in which iron is bacterially reduced under anaerobic conditions. Gleying may result from a raised water table or from impeded drainage within the soil profile -- especially in bogs, fens, floodplains, lakes, and swamps. The soil is blue, gray, or olive in coloring and forms gley horizons.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A Roman surveying instrument which traced right angles. It was made of a horizontal wooden cross pivoted at the middle and supported from above. From the end of each of the four arms hung a plumb bob. By sighting along each pair of plumb bob cords in turn, the right angle could be established. The device could be adjusted to a precise right angle by observing the same angle after turning the device approximately 90 degrees. By shifting one of the cords to take up half the error, a perfect right angle would result. It was used for laying out the grid patterns of towns and forts, for road construction, and for centuriation.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A level of Hungarian and Rumanian metalwork hoards (Apa-Hajdusamson horizon) dated to the later Early Bronze Age, c 1700-1500 BC. The bronze solid-hilted swords, disk-butted and shaft-tube axes and daggers are often richly decorated, but the gold-working is even finer. The horizon includes many small ornaments (disks, rings, bracelets) as well as unique pieces such as the Persinari sword and the Bihar cups. The unique pieces were probably the products of a single workshop in Transylvania.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A system devised by E. Harris for representing a site's stratigraphy in schematic form, emphasizing the chronological relationships between the various deposits. It is a method of summarizing the vertical and horizontal interrelationships of all the layers and features on a site in a diagrammatic form.
CATEGORY: language DEFINITION: A cursiveform of the Egyptian hieroglyphs developed for everyday use in handwritten documents. It arose from the use of brush pen on papyrus for business and similar non-monumental purposes, starting at the end of the Early Dynastic Period (c 2686 BC). It was gradually replaced by demotic starting in the 7th century BC, but survived for religious use to the end of paganism in Egypt. The word comes from Greek hieratika sacred". Hieratic signs lost the pictorial character of hieroglyphs and are often joined together. Hieratic was written in one direction only from right to left. In earlier times the lines had run vertically and later about 2000 BC horizontally. Subsequently the papyrus scrolls were written in columns of changing widths. There were ligatures in hieratic so that two but no more than two signs could be written in one stroke. As a consequence of its decreased legibility the spelling of the hieratic script was more rigid than that of hieroglyphicwriting. Variations from uniformity at a given time were minor; but during the course of the various periods the spelling developed and changed. As a result hieratic texts do not correspond exactly to contemporary hieroglyphic texts either in the placing of signs or in the spelling of words. Hieratic used diacritical additions to distinguish between two signs that had grown similar to one another because of cursivewriting. In the life of the Egyptians hieratic script played a larger role than hieroglyphicwriting and was also taught earlier in the schools. The latest hieratic texts are from the end of the 1st century or the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Hieratic should not be confused with 'cursive hieroglyphs' which were used for most of the Pharaonic period in such religious writings as the Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: hieroglyphic; hieroglyph CATEGORY: language DEFINITION: A pictorial script used by ancient Egyptians from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the end of the 4th century AD. A hieroglyph was a single character or pictorial element used in hieroglyphics. Literally, in Greek, it means 'sacred carved letters'. The script consisted of three basic types of sign: phonograms, logograms, and 'determinatives' arranged in horizontal and vertical lines. The script was used for funerary and monumental inscriptions as well as more strictly religious ones. The script's development seems to have been so rapid that it may have been in some sense an imitation of the earliest writing of Mesopotamia in its Urukphase. In both scripts three classes of symbol were used, each a single picture or geometric figure. Pictograms or ideograms represented whole words in pictorial form. Phonograms represented the sounds of words, the picture of an object pronounced in the same way as the desired word being used in its place (this was made easier by the fact that the vowels were disregarded). Determinatives told the reader the class of word spelt by the phonograms, necessary where these were ambiguous. Often all three classes of symbol were used in conjunction. No attempt was made in its long history to simplify the system, even when the more cursive forms of it, hieratic and demotic, were introduced. More loosely the term has been applied to other pictographic writing systems, particularly those of MinoanCrete, the Hittites and the Maya. Many of the symbols consist of a conventionalized picture of the idea or object they represent. Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered by Jean-François Champollion in 1822, through his study of the bilingual inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone and an obelisk from Philae. Some 700 signs were employed.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A graphical representation of a distributionfunction by means of rectangles whose widths represent intervals into which the range of observed values is divided and whose heights represent the number of observations occurring in each interval. For example, if measurements of length have been taken for bronze spearheads from one particular area and period, the measurements are represented by marking off intervals of lengths on the horizontal axis, and counting the number of spearheads falling into each division. These numbers are marked off on the vertical axis. In order to compare one set of data with another, or others, a cumulative version of the histogram may be used, where the succeeding values are added to the preceding: these are called cumulative frequency polygons, and are useful for comparative work, but are difficult to use if single histograms need to be extracted. A useful way to assess the density of rocks is to make a histogram plot of the statistical range of a set of data. The representative value and its variation can be expressed as follows: (1) mean, the average value, (2) mode, the most common value (i.e., the peak of the distribution curve), (3) median, the value of the middle sample of the data set (i.e., the value at which half of the samples are below and half are above), and (4) standard deviation, a statistical measure of the spread of the data (plus and minus one standard deviation from the meanvalue includes about two-thirds of the data).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Hoabinh CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: A little-known Mesolithic or Neolithicculture (early-to-mid-Holocene stone tool industry) of southeast Asia (type site is Hoa Binh, Vietnam) dating from 10,000-2000 BC. There are many chipped, pecked, and polished stone axes found in piles of shells. Its importance lies in its position between the earliest centers of rice growing in India and China, and in the part it most have played in diffusing the knowledge of agriculture into Indonesia and the Pacific. The Neolithic assemblages have pottery and ground stone tools for several millennia after 6000 BC. It is best described as a techno-complex with successive cultural accretions, the Hoabinhian cannot be regarded as an archaeological culture of chronological horizon. The majority of Hoabinhian sites found to date are in rock shelters and coastal shell middens. The three recognized phases are: archaic with unifacially workedpebble tools, intermediate with smaller pebble tools and bifacial working and edge-grinding, and late characterized by some pottery, smaller scrapers, grinding stones, knives, piercers, polished stone tools, and shell artifacts.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Harmakhis, Harakhte, Harsiesis, Kawm Umbu, Haroeris, Harpocrates, Harsomtus, Horemakhet, Ra-Horakhty; Hor; Har CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: An Egyptian god in the form of a falcon, recognized in Hierakonpolis and Edfu as contemporary with and opponent of Seth. The falcon's eyes stood for the sun and the moon. He later was considered the son of Isis and Osiris, with the reigning pharaoh being his incarnation. Horus is one of the oldest gods of Egypt, attested from at least as early as the beginning of the Dynastic period (c 2775 BC). He could also be a falcon-headed human in form. Horus appeared as a local god in many places and under different names and epithets: for instance, as Harmakhis (Har-em-akhet, Horus in the Horizon"); Harpocrates (Har-pe-khrad "Horus the Child"); Harsiesis (Har-si-Ese "Horus Son of Isis"); Harakhte ("Horus of the Horizon closely associated with the sun god Re); and, at Kawm Umbu (Kom Ombo), as Haroeris (Harwer, Horus the Elder"). Horus was later identified by the Greeks with Apollo."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Initial Period and Early Horizon site in the Cajamarcaregion of Peru. The ceremonial architecture reached its climax in the late Early Horizon and Early Intermediate periods.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Wari CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: An empire and large city in the central Peruvian Andes near Ayacucho, dating from 600-1000 AD (Middle Horizon). The local culture first came under Tiahuanaco influence, and Huari acted as a secondary center from which a modified version of the Tiahuanaco art style was spread to the Pacific coast and into the northern Andes. As many as 100,000 people lived in the capital and the empire included most of Peru. There was polychrome pottery; early ceramics (Chakipampa A) date to the Early Intermediate Period and are seen as a blend of Huarpa (a black-on-white geometricstyle) and Nasca styles. The later Chakipampa B style shows a strong Tiahuanacan influence. Structures include huge rectangular compounds with multi-story and subterranean masonry. Unlike Tiahuanaco, there are no megalithic structures and although there is some dressed stone work, cobbles of unformed stone are also widely used. The Huari empire collapsed and was abandoned c 800 (Early Intermediate Period), after which the regional traditions began to reassert themselves in art and politics, with the eventual emergence of new states (Chimú, Cuismancu, Chincha). The Huari were also skilled in metalwork. The well-to-do were buried in stone tombs.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A ceremonial site in the northern highlands of Peru of the Late Preceramic, Initial Period, and Early Horizon. It includes a small artificial mound of 13 superimposed constructions. Its ritual chambers with hearths are similar to the Kotosh Religious Tradition.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A form of Greek water pot; a large jar or pitcher for carrying water with two or three handles. The body was bulbous, the neck round. It was wider and usually lower than the amphora and it had well-defined foot and neck. There were two horizontal loop handles on the body for carrying and one vertical handle from the rim to the shoulder for pouring.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A horseshoe- or U-shaped bone situated between the chin and the thyroid cartilage and makes up part of the larynx in the throat. It is the only human bone that does not connect with another bone. In man, it is embedded horizontally in the root of the tongue and held in place by several ligaments. In most other mammals it is larger and more complicated than in man.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Middle Palaeolithicsite in the northern Caucasus, Russia. There are numerous occupation horizons with remains of steppebison and sidescraper artifacts.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: IRLS CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Imagery that results from equipment that scans from horizon to horizon to detect and record actual temperature differences (thermal prospection) on continuous videotape.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria which has yielded the longest dated sequence of microlithic artifacts found in West Africa. Occupation was established by 12,000 years ago and the chipped stoneindustry continued for as long as 8000 years with only minor changes. From the lowest horizon a human burial, described as showing Negroid physical features, was recovered and it is the oldest Nigerian skeleton yet uncovered. In about the mid-4th millennium ground stone artifacts and potterycame into use. There is some evidence for the beginning of agriculture around that time.
Izumi, Seiichi or Izumi Shimada (1918-1970)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: Japanese archaeologist who worked in Peru, excavating at Kotosh near Huanuco. A cultural peak was reached in the valleys of Pacasmayo, Chicama, and Moche on the northern Peruvian coast. A large proportion of this area has been grouped by archaeologists into a Mocheculture, although some of the territory encompassed by these valleys was not part of the polity called Moche. Izumi referred to this kind of control as horizontally discontinuous territoriality.""
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Horizon site of the central highlands of Peru with Huari-style architecture. It was an administrative center of the Huari from 650-800 AD.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kaushambi CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site in the Ganges Valley of northern India which was a great urban center in the early historical period. Its earliest wall, of mudbrick faced with baked brick 12 m high, was built about 500 BC. Within it is a Buddhist monastery the fifth century BC where, according to an inscription, the Buddha himself stayed for a time. Of the same period is a building interpreted as a palace, with walls of stone rubble. The site has provided important information about the origins and development of the Gangetic Iron Age urban civilization. The earliest levels contain pottery related to the Ochre Colored Potteryhorizon and are dated to the mid-2nd millennium BC. The second level has black-and-red, red, gray, and black wares and iron objects also appear, in the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC. There was Northern Black Polished Ware in the third level of around 500 BC.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Khnemu CATEGORY: deity DEFINITION: The ancient Egyptian god of fertility, associated with water and procreation. Khnum was worshipped from the 1st Dynasty, c 2925-2775 BC, into the early centuries AD. He was represented as a ram with horizontal, twisting horns or as a man with a ram's head. Khnum was believed to have created humankind from clay like a potter and his first main cult center was Herwer. From the New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC) on, however, he became the god of the island of Elephantine and the area of the First Cataract of the Nile River. There he formed a triad of deities with the goddesses Satis (Satet) and Anukis. Khnum also had an important cult at Esna, south of Thebes.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kosziderpadlás CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Three large hoards found at Dunapentele-Kosziderpadlá, on the Danube south of Budapest, Hungary. The contents were characteristic of an early phase of the Tumulus culture of the (Early) Bronze Age and serve to document the expansion of that culture (Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Germany) c 1400 BC. Similar hoards with ivy-leaf pendants, spiral anklets with rolled ends, shaft-hole battle-axes decorated with spiral and geometric patterns, belt plates, flanged axes, palstaves, solid-hilted daggers, socketed axes, and tanged sickles have been found in east-central Europe from the Baltic to the Sea of Azov, and mark the Kosziderhorizon throughout the region.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A tellsite of the Indus Valley, east of Mohenjo-Daro in Pakistan, which has given its name to one of a group of pre-Harappan cultures in the area (variant of Nal-Amri). Radiocarbon dates suggest early 3rd millennium BC for the settlement, which was eventually destroyed and replaced by a settlement of the Indus Civilization. The Kot-Dijian pottery was a thin pinkish ware decorated with horizontal black lines, perhaps related to that of the Zhob valley. Comparable wares have been found in pre-Indus levels at Harappa and Kalibangan in Punjab.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Major pre-Columbian ceremonial site in the north-central highlands of Peru, near Huánuco, coming into use during the Late Preceramic Period and continuing until after the end of the Chavín culture during the Early Horizon, c 1 AD. It is known for its temple structures, the earliest of which have interior wall niches and mud-relief decorative friezes, and date to the end of the Late Preceramic Period (c 2000-1800 BC). In the earliest levels (Mito) are remains of a platform on which stood the Temple of the Crossed Hands. Stone tools, some similar to Laurichocha II and III, and other artifacts appropriate to an Archaic subsistencepattern also occur in this phase. The next (Wairajirca) period has a radiocarbon date of 2305 +/- 110 BC and saw the introduction of the first pottery, a gray ware with incised designs and post-fired painting in red, white, or yellow. In the following (Kotosh) stage, there is evidence of maizecultivation, and the pottery, with grooved designs, graphite painting, and stirrup spouts, has Chavín-like features. Radiocarbon dates suggest that this period is centered on c 1200 BC and was closely followed by a pure Chavín stage with the typical pottery and ornament. Next in sequencecame levels (Sajarapatac and San Blas phases) with white-on-red pottery, and the uppermost strata (Hiqueras period) were characterized by red vessels, rare negative painting, and copper tools.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: skyphos CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A Greek drinking cup with two horizontal handles.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: crater; bell krater; volute krater; calyx krater; column krater CATEGORY: artifact; ceramics DEFINITION: Ancient Greek vessel used for diluting wine with water. It usually stood on a tripod in the dining room, where wine was mixed. Kraters were made of metal or pottery and were often painted or elaborately ornamented. In Homer's Iliad" the prize offered by Achilles for the foot race at Patroclus' funeral games was a silver krater. The Greek historian Herodotus describes many enormous and costly kraters dedicated at temples or used in religious ceremonies. Kraters are large with a broad body and base and usually a wide mouth. They may have horizontal handles placed near the base or vertical handles rising from the shoulder. Among the many variations are the bell krater confined to red-figure pottery shaped like an inverted bell with loop handles and a disk foot; the volute krater with an egg-shaped body and handles that rise from the shoulder and curl in a volute (scroll-shaped form) well above the rim; the calyx krater the shape of which spreads out like the cup or calyx of a flower; and the column krater with columnar handles rising from the shoulder to a flat projecting liprim. Some were fitted with a strainer."
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: La Copa CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A site near Cajamarca in the northern highlands of Peru, of the Chavin culture of Early Horizon period c 800 BC. The central structure was a stone-faced, triple-terraced pyramid, surmounted by a temple or temples. Three-dimensional statues and other carved stone are executed in the Chavin style with the characteristic feline motif common. Other associated features, however, such as ceramics, appear to be a mixture of Chavin and later styles, suggesting that the site may extend beyond the Early Horizon.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cylix CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A Greek stemmed drinking cup or chalice, usually made of clay or metal. The term was originally used for a cup of any form, but modern scholars restrict it to shallow two-handed stemmed forms. This wide-bowled drinking cup with horizontal handles was one of the most popular pottery forms from Mycenaean times through the classical Athenian period. There was usually a painted frieze around the outer surface, depicting a subject from mythology or everyday life, and on the bottom of the inside a painting often depicting a dancing or drinking scene.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Very extensive horizon or a long enduring tradition and as a major intrusiveculture within western island Melanesia from Southeast Asia.) elaborate decorated pottery, especially characteristic of the early assemblages in each region. Historically, the pottery is best described as comprising a ceramicseries, which begins with complex vessel shapes decorated by dentatestamping, incising, and appliqué techniques that everywhere form an easily recognizable designstyle, whose common geometric motifs can be analyzed and coded according to a limited set of rules. Over time the ceramic assemblages within the various island sequences change, usually independently of one another. Frequently this is by the loss of the more complex vessel shapes bearing the most elaborate decorations, until simpler vessels of largely plain ware predominate. These ceramic changes, traceable over spans of up to a thousand and more years, have caused some to speak of a Lapitatradition, as they provide a deep but variable set of time depths to the horizon concept. Thus terminal Lapita assemblages in the ceramicseries end in different regions at various intervals from 500 B.C. to A.D. 200 or 300.
Late Intermediate Period
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: A division of time in central Andean chronology, 1000-1450 AD, which was a period of regional diversification on the coast and in the highlands. New styles, cultures, and kingdoms arose after the collapse of the Middle Horizon empires. The period began with the dying out of the signs of unity imposed by Huari. Warfare, secularization of urban centers, rectangular enclosure plan were prominent. The cultures and styles were Chimú, Chancay, Pachacamac, Chincha, Ica; Cajamarca, Chanca, Killke, Lucre, Colla, Lupaca. The various empires that developed during the Late Intermediate Period were conquered by the Inca Empire.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A cross section in which the cut is made perpendicular to the base line of the artifactdrawing and the outline of the section is oriented like a profile view but in horizontal alignment with the points through which the cut was made
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: In Greek antiquity, large open basin, usually with two horizontal handles and used in the common household. It was probably multipurpose in function. Some had a cover or lid.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: In Greek antiquity, a shallow basin, usually with two horizontal handles and fitted with a lid which could be reversed to act as a stemmed plate. There are red-figured examples decorates with scenes of women.
Leroi-Gourhan, André George Léandre (1911-1986)
CATEGORY: person DEFINITION: French prehistorian who prepared important works on Palaeolithic art. He worked at Les Furtins, Arcy-sur-Cure, and Pincevent, pioneering techniques of horizontal excavation, the study of occupation floors, and ethnological reconstruction of prehistoric life. He published Treasures of Prehistoric Art" (also published as "The Art of Prehistoric Man in Western Europe" 1967; originally published in French 1965) a magnificently illustrated volume on the art of the Cro-Magnon peoples and "The Dawn of European Art: An Introduction to Palaeolithic Cave Painting" (1982; originally published in Italian 1980) a well-illustrated technical discussion."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A settlement of the Early Neolithic Cris culture, the Rumanian regional variant of the First Temperate Neolithic, with later Boian and Gumelnita occupation levels. It is dated to the early 5th millennium BC, and is a rare example of a multi-level Cris site, with three occupation horizons, each characterized by differing styles of painted wares.
CATEGORY: tool; term DEFINITION: An instrument used in surveying which takes vertical measurements and which is much used in excavation for the recording of site contours and accurate depths of features, especially for making maps and identifying the location of artifacts. There are several types of leveling instrument, the Y or dumpy level, the tilting level, and the self-leveling level. Each consists of a telescope fitted with a spirit level and, generally, mounted on a tripod. It is used in conjunction with a graduated rod placed at the point to be measured and sighted through the telescope. The theodolite (q.v.), or transit, is used to measure horizontal and vertical angles; it may be used also for leveling. The differences between the types are in the ease of leveling: the first has a single spirit level for the whole instrument, the second a separate spirit level for spindle and telescope with a tilting mechanism and adjustable screw on the telescope, and the third an optical part operated by a pendulum so that the line of sight is always horizontal. Having established a datum point, the instrument is sighted on a leveling staff or rod which is marked in a graduated scale, metric, or imperial. The difference in level between the telescope and the base of the rod can be read off on this scale, and the result subtracted from the height of the level itself above ground; the final figure gives the real height, or depth, of the feature above or below the ground at instrument point. Subtracting the stadia rod reading from the height of the level above the ground surface gives the difference in height between ground surface at the instrument station and the ground surface at the datum point. A series of levels taken across a site will give contours, while excavated features and small finds can be leveled in with greater accuracy than with tapes from a hypothetical ground surface. The term is also used to refer to the actual height measurements taken with such an instrument. More generally, archaeologists often use the term 'level' interchangeably with layer. In excavations the remains are divided into levels that contain the buildings and objects belonging to a phase.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: An Early Intermediate Period (c 200 BC-600 AD) culture of the central coast of Peru. Its major population centers were Cajamarquilla and Pachacamac. There are ceramics (Maranga, Interlocking style) showing the influence of the Mocheculture. Changes in the potterystyle during the Middle Horizon (600-1000 AD) indicate influence from the Huari Empire.
CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: A small spirit-bubble designed for suspension from a string; often used to lay in horizontal lines across an archaeological site. It is not as accurate as transit-defined vertical provenience.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A horizontal stoneslab, beam, or wooden block forming the top of a door or window; a horizontal architectural member spanning and usually carrying the load above an opening.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A device used for weaving cloth. Normally the variety of loom used can be deduced from surviving fragments of the resulting cloth. The cloth shows, for example, that the horizontal loom was the more usual in ancient Egypt, the vertical loom in Syria and Mesopotamia. In Europe, the vertical loom with weighted warps was standard. The weights -- disk-shaped, quoit-shaped, or pyramidal -- are frequently found on sites from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age and reappear with the Anglo-Saxons. In the Americas, the most common form was the belt or backstrap loom, in which a continuouswarp thread passed between two horizontal poles. One was attached to a support while the other was attached to the seated weaver, who could adjust the tension of the warps simply by leaning forward or backward. The earliest evidence of the use of the loom, 4400 BC, is a representation of a horizontal two-bar (or two-beamed--i.e., warp beam and cloth beam) loom pictured on a potterydish found at al-Badari, Egypt. Loom weights have been found at archaeological sites dating from 3000 BC, but this type of loom may have originated even earlier. By about 2500 BC, a more advanced loom was apparently evolving in East Asia.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A method of archaeological recordkeeping in which all artifacts and ecofacts found together in a single horizontally and vertically defined unit are combined into one group (lot) for the purposes of collection and analysis.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A method of archaeological recordkeeping that adds a secondary horizontally and vertically defined unit (locus) to the lot system, such that the artifacts and ecofacts found in each locus are collected in separate lots.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Iron Age cemetery near Berne, Switzerland, with more than 200 graves of the early and middle La Tène periods (to c 200 BC). The graves are scattered along a ridge, and the cemetery has a horizontal stratigraphy with the oldest tombs at the north and the more recent ones at the southern end. Grave goods include swords, spears, fibulae, and a necklace of amber beads.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The scaled recording of the horizontal position of exposed features and, in some cases, artifacts and ecofacts, using standardized symbols. It is one of the two basic ground survey methods used in surface survey of archaeological sites, the other being surface collection.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Large Early Intermediate Period and Middle Horizon site located in the northern highlands of Peru near the ruins of Viracochapampa. It was the center of a major polity, the site consisting of a complex of circular and rectangular multi-story buildings of cut stone and surrounded by a stone wall. The center appears to have been important as early as Huari times and to have had some Chimu affiliations. It survived well enough to have been revised and remodeled by the Inca.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A breast-shaped drinking cup, usually with one horizontal and one vertical handle. In Athens, black-glossed and figured-decorated examples have been found.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mikhailovka, Mykhailvka CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A settlement of the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, located in the lower Dnieper Valley near Nikopol, Ukraine. Three main occupation horizons have been distinguished, the first a Cucuteni-Tripolye culture, the second of the Sredni Stog culture, and the last of the Catacomb Grave culture. Near the settlement was a flat cemetery of pit graves (Yamnaya burial rite).
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mochica CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: The major culture of the northern coast of Peru during the Early Intermediate Period. It originated in the Moche and Chicama Valleys and later spread by conquest as far south as the Santa and Nepeña Rivers. The culture developed around the start of the Christian era and lasted until c 700 AD. Dominant during the Early Intermediate Period (c 400 BC-600 AD), it is best known for its irrigation works, its massive adobetemple-platforms, and for its pottery. Especially famous are the modeled vessels and portrait head vases, and the jars, often with stirrup spouts, painted in reddish brown with scenes of religion, war, and everyday life. The potterysequence has five phases which are identified by the details of the spout formation on the stirrup-necked bottles and it is used for relative dating of the sites (c 300-700 AD). The Mocheculture was the major contributor to the subsequent Chimú culture of the north coast. Huge structures at the ceremonial center include a large, terraced, truncated pyramid, Huaca del Sol, and the smaller Huaca de la Luna, on top of which is a series of courtyards and rooms, some with wall paintings. Huaca del Sol was perhaps the largest single construction of the prehistoric Andean region. Grave goods in gold, silver and copper display a fairly advanced metalworking technology. Archaeologists excavated a site called Huaca Rajada and found the elaborate, jewelry-filled tomb of a Moche warrior-priest. Several more burial chambers containing the remains of Moche royalty have been excavated, all dating from about 300 AD, whose finds greatly aided the understanding of Moche society, religion, and culture. Incised lines on lima beans have recently been interpreted as a form of nonverbal communication similar in concept to the quipu. Developing out of Cupisnique, Gallinazo and Salinar, Moche survived into the Middle Horizon but appears ultimately to have been overtaken by the Huariculture. In the last phase (Moche V), the southern part of the Moche territory was abandoned and a new capital established in the north, at Pampa Grande.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: An Early Stone Age rock shelter located in the Cape Province of South Africa, about 150 km east of Cape Town. This site is one of the very few African caves to have preserved traces of Acheulianmaterial. Later horizons include one containing an industry which has been variously attributed to the Hoiesonspoort and to a Pietersburgvariant.
Mount Mazama ash
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Mazama Ash CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: Volcanic ash (or tephra) originating from the eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon) nearly 7000 years ago (6600 years ago). Undisturbed beds of Mazama ash provide important contextual dates for archaeological sites throughout the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. The eruption also produced Crater Lake in Oregon. Great thicknesses of pumice were deposited on the flanks of Mount Mazama, while finer material was blown over great distances by the winds. The widespread distribution of the Mazama Ash has made it useful in archaeological studies as a horizon, or time, marker. Studies of sediments formed in relation to the ash deposits suggest that the ash formed at a time when generally drier climates prevailed in the regions in which the ash occurs. The mineralogical composition of the ash is distinctive and allows it to be distinguished from other volcanic ash deposits.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A type of rampart used in Europe during the La Tène Iron Age; coined by Julius Caesar to describe the defenses of the Celtic oppidum of Avaricum (Bourges). The ramparts were made of earth and stone with horizontal timber lacing and held together with iron nails. The spaces of the beams were filled by stone walling. It was often used at great Iron Age hillforts of Europe during prehistory.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Nazca CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Major culture of the southern coast of Peru during the Early Intermediate Period, c 200 BC-600 AD, developed out of Paracas. The principal Nascasite is at Cahuachi on the Nasca River, with a great adobetemple atop a mound, some walled courts and large rooms, and a number of smaller constructions. The earliest pottery, of roughly the 2nd century BC, still shows Paracas influence in the iconography and the use of up to 16 colors, but the paint was not put on before firing. Typical Nascapottery with designs of fish, birds, severed heads, human figures and demons, shows a long internal development. The final Nasca substyle incorporates patterns taken from the art of Huari, and this contact was soon followed by invasion. Stylistically, the Nascaceramics have been divided into nine phases. With the expansion of the Huari empire to the coast around the 7th century AD, Nascaculturecame to an end and was replaced by a local version of Huari. To the Nascaperiod belong some (or all) of the desert markings, the so-called 'Nasca lines', made by scraping away the weathered surface of the desert to expose the lighter material beneath. Motifs include lines, geometrical patterns, and a few animal or bird forms. The dead were buried in large cemeteries, mainly near Cahuachi. Nasca survived into the Middle Horizon, when it became fused with the more dominant Huari and Tiahuanaco styles.
CATEGORY: chronology DEFINITION: The period or horizon from c 2900-2500 BC in northern Mesopotamia characterized by distinctive painted and incised and excised pottery. The name derives from the site of Nineveh where it was first excavated. The term also refers to the pottery itself.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: At an angle to both the vertical and horizontal
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A complex of Neolithic settlements on the Bosnia River near Sarajevo, Bosnia. Obre I comprises four occupation horizons, the first with Starcevopottery, dating c 4500-4200 BC. It has rectangular houses similar to those at Karanovo I and Anza, and arranged in rows. Obre II represents the most complete development of the Butmirculture yet discovered, with nine habitation horizons in three main periods (dated c 4250-3950 BC, c 3900 BC, and c 3800 BC). This 1300-year cut through the Bosnian Neolithicsequence provides details on the evolution of timber-framed architecture, subsistence economy, and exchange systems. The pottery is interpreted as reflecting possible transhumant pastoralism.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ogam, ogam, Ogham, ogum; Pictish symbol stones CATEGORY: language DEFINITION: A Celtic script used for writing in northwest Europe, probably created in the 2nd-3rd centuries AD, and used for writing Irish and Pictish languages. The alphabet has 20 letters represented by tally marks on either side of or crossing a horizontal baseline. The script is better suited for carving on stone (or possibly wood) than for writing in ink. It is believed to have originated in Ireland or south Wales as a secret script and it spread throughout the Celtic areas for use on memorial stones. It is also found associated with the symbols and carvings of the Picts, who used it till the 9th century. Ogham is used on memorial pillar stones in the Celtic regions of Britain, usually consisting of no more than the name and descent of the dead man. It was often the custom, particularly in the south and west in Wales and Cornwall, to provide a translation in Latin minuscule and this has proved important for the translation and dating of ogham. Of the more than 375 ogham inscriptions known, about 300 are from Ireland.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Important site in northwest Alaska containing one of the continent's longest stratigraphies; occupied from at least 8500 BP by a number of Eskimo-Siberian-Indian subcultures (American Palaeoarctic, Northern Archaic, Arctic Small Tool Traditions, Inuit cultures). The oldest industries, called Akmak and Kobuk, are thought to last from c 9000 BC until the mid-7th millennium BC, and include chipped tools (blades, bifaces and associated cores) which are closer to Siberian types than to those of temperate America. The Kobuk (6200-6000 BC) contained similar tools but of limited variety. After a long hiatus in occupation, the Palisades II industry (4850-3350 BC, variously 4000-2000 BC) shows links with the archaic cultures of the forest zone to the southeast, as does the succeeding Portage complex (3350-3000 BC, variously 2600-2200 BC). Next came tools of the Denbigh Flint Complex (3200 BC, variously 2200-1800 BC), followed by Chloris (1500-500 BC) with the oldest pottery in the Arctic, then a local version (Norton) of Ipiutak (400-800 AD), by a forest-adapted Indian culture called Itkillik Complex (500-1000 AD), and finally by an Arctic Woodland Culturefacies of the Thule Tradition. The excellent vertical stratigraphy of this site makes it the major reference for all western Arctic chronologies, especially when taken together with the horizontal stratigraphy of Cape Krusenstern.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: area excavation; open-area excavation, extensive excavation CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The opening up of large horizontal areas for excavation, used especially where single period deposits lie close to the surface. It is the excavation of as large an area as possible without the intervention of balks and a gridsystem. This technique allows the recognition of much slighter traces of ancient structures than other methods. On multi-period sites, however, it calls for much more meticulous recording since the stratigraphy is revealed one layer at a time. In this method of excavation, the full horizontal extent of a site is cleared and large areas are open while preserving a stratigraphic record in the balks between large squares. A gradual vertical probe may then take place. This method is often used to uncover houses and prehistoricsettlement patterns.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A type of excavation in which large horizontal areas are opened, esp. where single-period deposits lie close to the surface.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: order of architecture CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: Any of several styles of classical or Neoclassical architecture that are defined by the particular type of column and entablature they use as a basic unit. A column consists of a shaft together with its base and its capital. The column supports a section of an entablature, which constitutes the upper horizontal part of a classical building and is itself composed of (from bottom to top) an architrave, frieze, and cornice. The form of the capital is the most distinguishing characteristic of a particular order. There are five major orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite -- established by Vitruvius (1st century AD).
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate periodsite in Jequetepeque Valley in Peru. Located on a promontory, it has large defensive walls and more than 50 truncated pyramid complexes. The large site may represent the southernmost Moche V polity. The site was abandoned at the end of the Middle Horizon and then again when the Chimu expanded into the region.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A large pre-Columbian ruin in the Lurin Valley on the central coast of Peru. The earliest major occupation and construction of Pachacamac dates to the Early Intermediate Period (c 200 BC-600 AD) by the Early Lima culture (Maranga, Interlocking style). The terraced adobepyramid and temple known as the Temple of Pachacamac belongs to this time and culture, and Pachacamac's fame as the seat of an oracle probably began in the Early Intermediate Period. During the Middle Horizon (600-1000 AD) it continued as a major center and place of pilgrimage and was probably the principal establishment of the Huari Empire on the coast. In late pre-Columbian times, the Inca constructed the Temple of the Sun and the Oracle of Pachacamac. The temple's buildings contained richly appointed female mummies, some of which bear evidence of ritual strangulation. The shrine and temple were sacked by Francisco Pizarro's soldiers during the Spanish conquest in 1532. Huari influence is seen on the polychrome pottery, c 800-1000 AD.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Horizon site of the Nasca Valley in Peru. A major Huari offering deposit was found with hundreds of smashed polychrome vessels.
Paleo-Indian or Palaeoindian
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Paleoindians; Early Lithic CATEGORY: culture; chronology DEFINITION: One of the prehistoric people who migrated from Asia and settled throughout the Americas no later than 10,000 BC. They existed as big-game hunters from about 10,000 BC to about 6000 BC in the Great Plains and eastern North America. (The other tradition at the time was the Desert-culture peoples of the western basin-rangeregion.) Some regard the term as referring to all hunting groups involved with now-extinct mammals, in which case the peoples who hunted the species of bison that became extinct about 4500 BC would also be classified as Paleo-Indians. The oldest remains of the Paleo-Indian tradition are found on sites where large Pleistocene mammals were killed and butchered. The most distinctive artifact type of this horizon is the Clovis Fluted projectile point, which was accompanied by sidescrapers. Paleo-Indians are most frequently associated with mammoth, although associations with extinct species of bison, horse, and camel have also been reported. The term also refers to the earliest period in New World chronology, representing the time up to the development of agriculture and villages. In yet another sense, it refers to the period in archaeology (also called Early Lithic) beginning with the earliest stone tools, about 750,000 years ago.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A slab of black basalt bearing a record of the first five Egyptian dynasties (Old Kingdom), compiled in the 5th dynasty, c 2400 BC. It is one of the basic sources of information about the chronology and cultural history of Egypt during the first five dynasties (c 2925-c. 2325 BC). Named for the Sicilian city in which one slab is stored, the dioritestela is one of six existing fragments that probably originally stood in Egyptian temples; other slabs are now in London and Cairo. It is inscribed on both sides with horizontal lines of hieroglyphic text, the top row listing the names of predynastic rulers. The following rows, each headed by the name of a different king, are divided into compartments, each compartment signifying one year. Within the compartments the hieroglyphs always list one or more memorable events of that year. Thus the original monument was apparently a year-by-year record of all the kings from the 1st-5th dynasty, although the last name preserved on the stone is that of Neferirkare, the third of the nine kings of the 5th dynasty.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Horizon, Moche V site in Lambayeque Valley, northern Peru, dated c 1000 BC and occupied for relatively short time. It was a large urban center and probably the relocated capital, after the abandonment of Huacas del Sol and Luna, of the Mochepolity in its closing phases. Highly differentiated architecture is scattered over the area and structures include masonry platforms, truncated adobe pyramids, small agglutinated rooms, and extensive network of corridors and large storage rooms. A variety of human face motifs on molded and handmade neck-jars may have socio-economic significance in identifying either the contents or the owner. Stone tools were used in metalworking and small utilitarian artifacts in copper have also been found.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Large ceremonial area and major Early Horizon culture on the south coast of Peru, showing direct influence from Chavín -- especially in the pottery (called Ocucaje in the Ica Valley). The pottery is a highly individual polychrome ware with designs executed in resinous paint applied after the pot was fired, including paint-filled incisions of Chavinoid deities. This early periodpottery was not well-fired. Desert conditions have preserved all kinds of organic materials, including fine textiles, in rich burials. The best known graves belong to the closing stages of the culture and are of two types: deep shafts leading into underground chambers with several mummy bundles (Paracas Cavernas), and pits or abandoned houses filled with sand and containing more than 400 mummy bundles (the type site, ParacasNecropolis). These people also engaged in artificial deformation of the skull by binding the skull in infancy. Much of the material from the necropolis belongs to the earliest stage of the Nascaculture, which developed out of Paracas in about the 2nd century BC. The Paracasculture's earlier phase, called Paracas Cavernas, is dated 900 BC-1 AD; the Paracas cultures of the middle Early Intermediate Period (c 1-400 AD) are referred to as the Paracas Pinilla and the Paracas Necrópolis phases. There are no large temple structures at the type site.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A Geto-Dacian walled city during Burebistas' reign (82-44 BC), in western Romania, near Arad. It was a long-lived tellsettlement of the Bronze Age. At least 16 occupation horizons have been distinguished, with one of the clearest sequences of pottery development in the Banat. A large collection of stone molds for metallurgy was found along with inhumation cemeteries containing rich grave goods of gold, bronze, and faience and amber beads.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: The interaction of the physical, chemical, and biological factors, processes, and conditions that cause a soil to evolve into a soil horizon.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: phosphate surveying, phosphorus survey CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The examination of phosphates from decayed organic matter; a technique for detecting the presence of phosphate in soil and for using phosphorus concentrations to determine human settlements and activity within sites. Phosphate is a natural constituent of soil, however, it is concentrated by animals' bones, excrement, and food refuse. The technique has been employed particularly in the study of cave deposits (to show human or animal occupation), settlement sites (to identify the uses to which different areas were put) and burials (to show the former existence of bodies completely decayed). Once phosphate is in the soil, it is usually converted into an insoluble form, so that it does not tend to move down profile nor to be redistributed sideways in the soil. For this reason, settlements and farms tend to leave high concentrations of phosphate in the soil, which often remain stable over long periods, sometimes thousands of years. Much preliminary work must be done on the distribution and range of naturally occurring phosphorus because variations are caused by vegetation abundance and type and by soil horizon.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Style of bronzepin common in northern France and southern England during the Ornament Horizon of the middle Bronze Age. Picardy pins are distinctive in having a tapering shaft that is considerably thickened at the head end, a swollen neck, and an elaborated domed or mushroom-shaped head. They often have some incised decoration near the head and may be pierced through the swollen neck
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Middle Horizon site near Cuzco, Peru, that was a Huari administrative center. There are many small ovoid structures on the site.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Large Upper Palaeolithic / Late Magdalenian open-air site east of Paris at the confluence of the Seine and Yonne. The project pioneered large-scale horizontal excavation in the western Europe Palaeolithic as well as the plotting and refitting of flint fragments as an aid to reconstructing the living conditions. Artifacts and debris of flint (including conjoined flints) and bone are found from 10,000-9000 BC in at least 15 occupations. Over 100 tent/hut habitations and 20 large hearths have been found.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: plaited basketry CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Basketry made with both a horizontal and a vertical stitch or weft -- like a braid. The weave is basically the same in both directions.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A two-dimensional rendering at a constant scale, showing the horizontal dimensions of archaeological data.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: An excavation method in which horizontal slices are removed either from the whole site, or from specific features, in order to reveal a succession of plans.
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: Pertaining to platelike particles with nearly horizontal grain surfaces.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ploshchadi CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: In Russian antiquity, house floors which had a layer of clay covering a base of horizontal logs and often hardened by fire. They are characteristic of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture and also occur in the Gumelnita, Petresti, and Vinca cultures extending into southeastern Europe in the Late Neolithic.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: Mapping on the horizontal square or site plan; a graphic record of data.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: podzol, podsol soil, podzol soil CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A soiltype characteristic of coniferous woodland, heath, tundra or moorland -- leached, acid soils formed under conditions of very cold climate's forest vegetation cover. The fauna produce phenols which are washed into the horizons and disperse the clay/humus complexes. Minerals, humus, and nutrients are washed down the profile and become deposited as illuvial horizons of humus and iron oxides. The latter is often called the 'ironpan'. A bleached, sandy eluvial horizon is left at the top of the profile. Podsols develop naturally in areas of high annual rainfall, but most of the large areas of podsols in the uplands and lowland heaths of the British Isles were probably at least initiated by man's clearance of woodland during the present Interglacial.
CATEGORY: term DEFINITION: A basic method of recording context where every artifact or ecofact is individually recorded (point-plotted) according to its horizontal and vertical location.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: palynology CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The study of pollen grains in soil samples from an archaeological site which provides information on ancient human use of plants and plant resources. This technique, which is used in establishing relative chronologies as well as in environmental archaeology, was developed primarily as a technique for the relative dating of natural horizons. Pollen grains are produced in vast quantities by all plants, especially the wind-pollinated tree species. The outer skin (exine) of these grains is remarkably resistant to decay, and on wet ground or on a buried surface, it will be preserved, locked in the humus content. The pollen grains of trees, shrubs, grasses, and flowers are preserved in either anaerobic conditions or in acid soils. Samples can be taken from the deposits by means of a core or from individual layers at frequent intervals in a sectionface on an archaeological site. The pollen is extracted and then concentrated and stained and examined under a microscope. Pollen grains are identifiable by their shape, and the percentages of the different species present in each sample are recorded on a pollen diagram. A comparison of the pollen diagrams for different levels within a deposit allows the identification of changes in the percentages of species and thus changes in the environment. As a dating technique, pollen has been used to identify different zones of arboreal vegetation which often correspond to climatic changes. The technique is invaluable for disclosing the environment of early man's sites and can even, over and series of samples, reveal man's influence on his environment by, for example, forest clearance. The sediments most frequently investigated are peat and lake deposits, but the more acid soils, such as podsols, are also analyzed. Radiocarbon dates may be taken at intervals in the sequence, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of vegetation in the area around the site where the samples were taken. Palynology plays an important role in the investigation of ancient climates, particularly through studies of deposits formed during glacial and interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: A wheel rotating horizontally which assists a potter in shapingclay into vessels. The development of the slow, or hand-turned, wheel as an adjunct to potterymanufacture led to the kickwheel, rotated by foot, which became the potter's principal tool. The potter throws the clay onto a rapidly rotating disk and shapes his pot by manipulating it with both hands. By the Urukphase in Mesopotamia, c 3400 BC, the fast wheel was already in use. It spread slowly, reaching Europe with the Minoans c 2400 BC, and Britain with the Belgae in the 1st century BC. Its presence can be taken to imply an organized potteryindustry, often also using an advanced type of kiln.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: Late Neolithicsettlement of the early Vincaculture in southern Serbia. The first of three occupation horizons has a radiocarbon date of c 4330 BC. Monumental fired-clayfigurine heads have been discovered which were made by abstract modeling with plastic features reinforced by incised lines.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: section CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: A vertical wall, section, or face of an excavationpit that exposes the lateral relationships, archaeological features, structures, stratigraphy -- and their relationships. By extension, a profile is a record or graphic representation of these, including color, soiltype, features, and content. Soil profiles consist of a number of layers, or horizons, which result from soil-forming processes.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: provenance CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The source, origin, or location of an artifact or feature and the recording of same. It is the position of an archaeologicalfind in time and space, recorded three-dimensionally. The horizontal reference system is usually some form of gridtied to a reference datum; the vertical dimension is reference to a vertical datum. I.e., the three-dimensional position of an archaeologicalfind in time and space and recorded from a known datum point at an archaeological site.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: Semi-subterranean aqueducts (35 or an original c 40) in the Nascaregion of Peru. Each puquio works as a horizontal well, tapping ground water and directing it through a subterranean tunnel or open trench to a small reservoir. Evidence indicates that the construction was done c 6th century AD by the Nascaculture.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A site and cultural phase of the Early Horizon Period in northern Titicaca area of Peru. The pottery had incisions or simple painted geometric motifs in red on cream.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Middle Bronze Age pin typical of the Ornament Horizon in northwest Europe (British Taunton Phase) comprising a thin shank with a point at one end and a large, rather ostentatious, ringcast onto the shank at the other.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The process of carefully scraping a horizontal surface to reveal features in it distinguished by color differences. It is particularly useful in sandy soils and gravels, revealing surprising detail.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: recurrence horizon CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A division in peatstratigraphy which separates well-humidified peat from unhumidified peat. Recurrence surfaces are found in raised bogs and blanket bogs which are nourished only by rainfall. It has therefore been suggested that recurrence surfaces are due to a change to damper climate. Recurrence surfaces of many dates have been found, often several in one bog, although not so many fitting into one age range. During the late prehistoric and early historic phases of the past 6,000 years, the peat bogs of northern Europe appear to have undergone a number of desiccations (warm, dry summers), revealed in the bog cores as dry, often wooded, surfaces. The dry phases were generally followed by wet conditions in which peat accumulation was rapid. These overlying layers of renewed peat growth are also known as recurrence horizons"."
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: The regular horizontal grooving on the flange of some types of mortaria and on the rim of some types of bowl.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: rendzina CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: A soiltype characteristic of chalk or limestone subsoils; any of a group of dark grayish brown intrazonal soils developed in grasslands on soft calcareous marl, soft limestone, or chalk. Rendzinas are one of a group of soils known as primitive soils. Unlike mature soils, which have three or more horizons in their profile, rendzinas have only a mixed mineral/humushorizon which rests directly on the weathered parent material. They represent an early stage in soil development. This fertile lime-rich soil is characterized by a dark friable humus-rich surface layer above a softer pale calcareous layer.
CATEGORY: flora DEFINITION: An edible, rootlike subterranean plant stem; a thick underground horizontal stem that produces roots and has shoots that develop into new plants.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: The nearly horizontal grooves and ridges that are left on wheel-thrown vessels as the potter's fingers life the body to form the rotating vessel.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A flagonneck with moldings forming a series of superimposed horizontal rings; not to be confused with a screw neck.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A style of architecture which emerged about 1000 and lasted until about 1150, by which time it had evolved into Gothic. It was hybrid style of architecture and ornament, transitional from the classical Roman to the introduction of the Gothic. It was a combination of horizontal and arched construction and the ornament included natural and fanciful objects. The term also refers to a style of monumentalsculpture and painting.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A rock shelter on the Jos Plateau of central Nigeria with two main artifact-bearing layers, the first containing large scrapers and backed crescent-shaped implements, but no pottery. The later horizon contained a backed microlithic industry and pottery, and dates to 2000 BP.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: palace facade decoration CATEGORY: language DEFINITION: Hieroglyphic symbol comprising the recessed paneling described in modern times as 'palace facade' decoration. It is the image of a brick facade to a palace or enclosure, with a rectangular space above. It is believed to have been modeled on the design of the earliest royal residences beginning in the Early Dynastic Period. It is found on mastaba tombs, false door stelae, coffins, sarcophagi, and numerous other funerary and ceremonial contexts throughout Egyptian history. A falcon (the sign for Horus) perches on the top horizontal of the rectangle, which encloses a king's Horus name (the first name in a king's titulary).
CATEGORY: site; artifact DEFINITION: Neolithic village in Basilicata, Italy, on a hill defended by three concentric ditches. It has yielded a distinctive painted pottery of the same name, c 4500-3500 BC. Geometric designs with diagonal meanders and solid triangles are painted in black or purple-brown on a buff surface. A frequent motif is a zigzag line between parallels (linea a tremolo marginato"). Jars and handled cups are the standard forms and the elaborate handles are horizontal tubular with zoomorphic additions on the top. In the later phase a thin and markedly splayed trumpetlug was adopted from the DianaWare of Lipari. The high quality of the ware and the fact that it most often occurs in graves and other ritual contexts suggests that it was produced for special purposes. It was traded over a wide area occurring in SicilyLipari Lake Garda Malta and in central Italy."
Serra d'Alto pottery
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Neolithic village in Basilicata, Italy, on a hill defended by three concentric ditches. It has yielded a distinctive painted pottery of the same name, c 4500-3500 BC. geometric designs with diagonal meanders and solid triangles are painted in black or purple-brown on a buff surface. A frequent motif is a zigzag line between parallels (linea a tremolo marginato"). Jars and handled cups are the standard forms and the elaborate handles are horizontal tubular with zoomorphic additions on the top. In the later phase a thin and markedly splayed trumpetlug was adopted from the Dianaware of Lipari. The high quality of the ware and the fact that it most often occurs in graves and other ritual contexts suggests that it was produced for special purposes. It was traded over a wide area occurring in SicilyLipari Lake Garda Malta and in central Italy."
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: A small spur projecting into the valley of the Kyi Chu River near Lhasa, Tibet. Three phases have been distinguished. Horizon A had flexed burials in rock-cut pits, accompanied by crude, handmade pottery but no metalwork. Horizon B contained two flexed burials in rock-cut pits with much finer handmade pottery and a few iron artifacts. There was also one larger tomb closed with two carefully dressed stone slabs and containing two skulls, a pile of long bones and vertebrae, three pottery vessels, and a wooden bowl with metal lining. Horizon C consisted of two tumuli built of pebbles, with flexed burials, fine wheel-turned pottery with traces of red decoration, and a few iron artifacts. About 50 meters from this ridge is a boulder with pecked carvings of animals and letters.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A horizontal crosspiece at the bottom of a wall opening.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A set of regularly spaced intersecting north-south and east-west lines, usually marked by stakes, providing the basic reference system for recording horizontal provenience (coordinates) within a site.
CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: A specially prepared map for recording the horizontal provenience of artifacts, food remains, and features -- keyed to topographic maps. Such a map may be designed to depict a specific detail within a site, usually a single feature or group of features.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Greek drinking vessel, usually a deep cup with two horizontal handles mounted near the rim.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: sill-beam; cill-beam; ground-sill CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A large horizontal timber into which uprights are socketed to construct the frame of a building. In early timber-framed buildings (Roman, Saxon and medieval), the framing was often erected not on a wall foundation but directly on a horizontal beam resting on or slightly recessed into the ground. Though rarely surviving, its wood will often leave a dark stain in the ground detectable by careful excavation.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A flat-topped horizontal turntable that can be rotated to assist a potter in shaping a ceramic vessel. Slow-turning wheels or tournettes were used from the 5th or 6th millennia BC in the Near East to help true up hand-made vessels. From the early 4th millennium BC,
CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: Mineral or organic matter that is unconsolidated and on or near the land surface. A prerequisite for soil formation is the growth of vegetation. Gradual colonization, first by lichens and then by higher plants causes build-up of organic matter (humus) in the developing soil. Clay minerals form complexes with humus and act as reservoirs of nutrients. Water from rainfall, entering the top of a soil profile, drains down the soil, taking with it nutrients and sometimes parts of the clay/humus complexes. The type of vegetation, the fauna of small animals that lives in the soil, the type of parent material, the way in which the clay/humus complexes behave, the amount of rainfall and the quality of drainage all go to determine the type of soil that develops. Soil forms differentiated layers (soil horizons) with respect to the land surface. The study of soils is called pedology. Studies of the way soils have developed may allow a reconstruction of the environmental changes which have taken place. Several complicated soil classification systems exist.
soil conductivity meter
CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: A geophysical instrument used in electromagnetic surveying for the detection of metal, but also for the location of archaeological features such as shallow pits, which have a different conductivity from the surrounding soil. The instrument has a transmitter coil which is fed with a continuous sinusoidal current, and a receiver coil; they are mounted at right angles to each other at opposite ends of a horizontal bar about a meter long. The instrument is designed to pick up differences in conductivity between features and the surrounding soil, i.e. the reverse of a resistivity meter. Resistivity surveying is considered more sensitive and versatile.
CATEGORY: feature; geology DEFINITION: The vertical sequence of horizons in the soil which occur not as the result of stratification but as a result of weathering and other processes. The profile provides environmental or palaeoenvironmental information, such as information on vegetation and climate. The term also refers to a vertical section exposed in excavation or naturally that shows horizons and parent material. The soilprofile is made up of some or all of the following: the A or humushorizon, the E or leached horizon, the B or (B) horizons or accumulation or chemical weathering, and the C horizon of parent material. Different soil profiles occur in different environmental regions, ranging from rendsinas, through brown earths, to podsols, gleys, and chernozems. The soilprofile and the type of vegetation are interdependent, and man's activities have an effect on and are affected by both.
CATEGORY: related field DEFINITION: A branch of stratigraphy in which soils are identified as stratigraphic units with specific chronological ordering. A pedostratigraphic unit is a three-dimensional, laterally traceable, buried sediment or rock with one or more soil horizons. It is not the same as the sequencing of soil horizons in a soil profile.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: podzolic soil, podsolic, lessivé soil CATEGORY: geology DEFINITION: Soil usually forming in a broadleaf forest and characterized by moderate leaching, which produces an accumulation of clay and some iron that have been transported (eluviated) from another area by water. The humus formed produces a textural horizon that is less than 50 cm (20 inches) from the surface. Podzolic soils may have laterite in place of the humic horizon or along with it. Sols lessivés are often difficult to identify, but they are the dominant soiltype of much of lowland Britain, where forest was cleared to make way for agriculture.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: stadia CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: A long, brightly colored rod with calibrations for obtaining elevations with a surveying instrument. Stadia is a surveying method for determination of distances and differences of elevation by means of this telescopic instrument having two horizontal lines through which the marks on a graduated rod are observed.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A type of Classical Greek vase, similar in size to the amphora, and likewise used typically for the storage of wine. The stamnos, however, is more squat in form, with two horizontal handles and a round mouth. The shape is popular with Athenian Red-Figure vase-painters in the period from about 525-400 BC and in Etruria in the 4th century BC.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: The position that orients a vessel the way it would typically be when resting on a surface, usually with the rim horizontal.
CATEGORY: ceramics DEFINITION: The line representing the horizontal plane in the illustration of pottery.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: stave construction CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A church built of wooden staves, consisting of split logs (upright planks) either set directly into the ground or into a wooden sill (horizontal beam). These were mainly built in Norway from the 11th-13th centuries.
CATEGORY: feature; structure DEFINITION: A ring of standing stones, either circular or near-circular, found in the British Isles from the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. There are almost 1000 stone circles, some surrounded by a ditch, with the most famous examples being Stonehenge, Avebury, and Callanish. Two atypical examples are in Brittany. The standing stones which make up these circles are widely spaced; in many examples they are incorporated into a ring-bank of smaller piled stones which has one opening as the entrance. A local variant is the recumbent stonecircle of Aberdeenshire in which the entrance is marked by a large horizontal stone flanked by tall portal stones. A recumbent stone is also a feature of circles in southwest Ireland, but here the two tallest stones are placed diametrically opposite the horizontal stone. Two of the Scottish recumbent stone circles have yielded Beaker pottery, while urn burials in various 'standard' circles were of Bronze Age type. Circles are often associated with cairns, menhirs, and alignments. Many have tried to interpret the complexgeometric layouts and placement of the stones within an astronomical base. There has been much discussion about the validity of various theories and there is no agreement on the subject.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: stripping excavations CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method of excavating whereby a large horizontal area is dug instead of a deep vertical one; clearing excavations in which large areas of overburden are removed to reveal horizontal distributions of data without leaving balks. This excavation layout is designed to investigate a large area for a modest outlay of effort. It has the disadvantage that no longitudinal section is available for study, only transverse ones, and that the site can never be seen in its entirety. It is a little used method with the introduction of technology.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A mathematical analytical approach to the decorative style of symmetry. Patterns are divided into two distinct groups or symmetry classes: 17 classes for those patterns that repeat motifs horizontally, and 46 classes for those that repeat them horizontally and vertically. Such studies suggest that the choice of motifarrangement within a particular culture is very important.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: Important architectural features of Mesoamerican stepped pyramids in Mexico. Each terrace consists of a vertical panel with a recessed inset, and a sloping batter or apron (talud) surmounted by a horizontal, rectangular panel with insert (tablero). The technique was used primarily at Teotihuacán, where it is the dominant style for temple pyramids, and in a modified form elsewhere -- Kaminaljuyu (Palangana Complex) in Guatemalan Highlands, Tikal, and the temple buildings at Chichen Itza.
CATEGORY: site DEFINITION: The site of a palace built by Offa, 8th-century king of Anglo-SaxonMercia. In the early 10th century it was reestablished as a burh town. Parts of the burh defenses and a gate have been found and a mill believed to be part of the 8th-century royal complex. Waterlogged conditions have preserved many of the structures. By Anglo-Saxon standards, the Tamworth mill was large and sophisticated, probably driven by a horizontal wheel.
CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: Bronze Age ritual monument found in the Balearic Islands of Minorca and Majorca from the Talayot culture. A taula may be 4 meters in height, and consists of a horizontal block supported either by a monolithic pillar or a column made of several stones. Often surrounded by a U-shaped enclosure wall, they are thought to have had a cult function.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: tephrachronology CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method for the relative dating of horizons in volcanic regions by identification of different layers of ash (tephra). Tephra layers (beds) are ideal stratigraphic markers because they are deposited instantaneously. Also, the chemical content of tephra (volcanic ash) is unique for each eruption. If artifacts lie below tephra known to have come from a certain eruption, the artifacts predate the eruption. Tephra layers may be dated by potassium-argon dating and fission track dating and they can sometimes be tied in to absolute chronology where radiocarbon dates can be obtained from material contemporary with the deposit. To establish a chronology it is necessary to identify and correlate as many tephra units as possible over the widest possible area. In the Mediterranean, deep-sea coring produced evidence for the ash fall from the eruption of Thera, and its stratigraphic position provided important information in the construction of a relative chronology. The identification of multiple tephra beds may give bracketing ages for intervening strata. Tephrochronology has also been used to date glacial advances, sea level changes, and alluvial fans.
CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: An instrument used in archaeology for surveying sites, especially for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. The accurate plotting of excavation trenches can be carried out and it can also be used in place of a level for determining heights and contours. There are different types of theodolite, though all include the focusing telescope, a leveling device, and scales for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. Vertical readings are easier to take on the theodolite than on the transit. The focusing telescope is mounted so that it freely rotates around horizontal and vertical axes; the telescope is usually fitted with a right-angle prism so that the observer continues to look horizontally into the eyepiece, whatever the variation of the elevation angle. Theodolites are frequently used in archaeology for setting out excavation units, mapping sites and environments, and for topographic mapping.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: pl. tholoi; tholos tomb; beehive tombs CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A beehive-shaped tomb built of stone and roofed by corbelling, sometimes royal, characteristic of the Mycenaean civilization. In Greek architecture, the term is generally used for the burial chambers of certain passage graves of similar plan and construction. The round chamber had an attached rectilinear entrance passage, the most famous examples being the Treasury of Atreus and Tomb of Clytemnestra at Mycenae. The corbelling is trimmed to form a smooth surface, and the ornamental doorway is approached by a masonry-lined, horizontal passage or dromos. Such a tomb is set partly underground or sometimes built into the side of a hill. In classical archaeology the term can be applied to either temples or tombs.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Tiwanaku CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Large urban and ceremonial site which dominated the Titicaca Basin and the high Andes of Bolivia from c 100-1250 AD, a major Middle Horizon site and probably the capital of an empire. The central area has principal religious structures on a large rectangular plaza, a large U-shaped mound around a spring, and a monumental Gate of the Sun cut from a single block of stone. The Tiahuanaco people had trade links with the Amazon jungle and the Pacific coast, exporting potatoes, root crops, and llama products. In the 10th century, Tiahuanaco colonies were established on the coasts of southern Peru and northern Chile. Tiahuanaco's distinctive art and architectural styles influenced the central highlands and southern Peru, northern Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina. Tiahuanacan influence spread over a wide area of the Central Andes and is especially evident because of its unique ceramics. Typically, pottery was pointed black-on-white on a red polished surface, although later styles employed as many as six colors. Geometric designs were common as well as stylized pumas, condors, and serpents. The kero (a flared-rimbeaker) is a characteristic form. Articles of bronze, copper and gold suggest that the city may also have been an important metallurgical center. Iconographic links with Huari to the north are such that a strong economic and cultural bond between the two is assumed. Tiahuanaco and Huari together constitute the Middle Horizon style of the Andes.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: timber slot CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: A trench dug to contain a horizontal beam.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: slice map CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: The use of thousands of individual reflections separated into horizontal slices, each of which corresponds to a specific estimated depth in the ground, which can reveal the general shape and location of buried features at each depth.
time-marker or time marker
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: horizon marker, temporal marker CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A temporally significant class of artifacts defined by a consistent clustering of attributes.
CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Late Neolithicculture of eastern Hungary, centered on the middle Danube region east of the River Tisza of the early 4th millennium BC, with tell and horizontal settlements. Characteristic are anthropomorphic vessels and pottery with incised basketry designs or with paint applied after firing. The wide variety of forms included footed and pedestaled bowls. Cereal production was important, as demonstrated by the large quantity of cereal storage jars, fired clay bins, and granaries in the villages. There was domestication of aurochs and intensive cattle husbandry. The culture is contemporaneous with the Lengyelculture of east-central Europe.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: transit theodolite CATEGORY: tool DEFINITION: A surveyor's instrument used to produce topographic or planimetric maps through the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles and horizontal distances. It is similar to a level, alidade, and theodolite and is used for the same purposes as a theodolite.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: An excavation technique in which a site is penetrated with long, narrow trenches that reveal the vertical dimension of the area and to explore the horizontal dimension along one axis.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Umguzan CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Cave site in the Matopo Hills of southwestern Zimbabwe with several layers of archaeological deposits preserving microlithic artifacts and sherds attributed to Bambata ware. The sequence includes Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age assemblages and is also the name of a Middle Stone Age industry postdating 30,000 BP. This horizon contained backed microliths associated with diminutive implements and ostrich eggshell beads.
CATEGORY: technique DEFINITION: A method of penetrating excavation that, instead of cutting through strata vertically, follows buried strata or features along one horizontal dimension.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: twined; twined basketry CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Basketry made with a horizontal stitch or weft; a technique of textile or basketweaving in which the wefts are inserted in pairs, and twine around one another as they embrace each successive warp. The warp is relatively rigid and the weft is relatively pliable.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: Style of Neolithicpottery found in the northern part of the British Isles, especially the Hebrides, Western Isles, and Orkney, defined by Stuart Piggott in 1954 on the basis of an assemblage from the chambered tomb of Unstan on Orkney. Including both decorated and undecorated vessels, Unstan ware is diverse in the range of shapes and sizes represented. However, it can be typified by round-bottomed forms either as deep bowls and jars or as shallow bowls with a carinatedprofile produced by the application of a fillet or cordon of clay. The decoration is generally incised with oblique or horizontal lines, triangles, or a zone of hatched triangles. Dated examples of this ware fall within the period 3500-2800 BC, Unstan ware being slightly earlier than GROOVED WARE in the region.
CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A structure on which woven cloth is manufactured comprising two more or less vertical supports (often set in the ground) with a horizontal beam across the top. The warp threads are tied to the cross-beam so that they hang down, thus allowing the weaver to move a horizontal shed rod between alternating sets of the warp in order that a shed is opened up for the weft to be threaded through. The warp threads were tensioned by loomweights. The upright loom was commonly used in antiquity, traces of them being known in Europe from the middle Bronze Age onwards.
CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: The vertical portion of a ventilation system, which is a specialized construction for allowing fresh-air intake into a structure. Ventilation systems are normally found in pithouses and kivas, rarely in rooms. The ventilator shaft is outside the main chamber of the structure and is connected to the structure by a horizontal tunnel.
CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: The horizontal portion of a ventilation system, which is a specialized construction for allowing fresh-air intake into a structure. Ventilation systems are normally found in pithouses and kivas, rarely in rooms.
CATEGORY: site; artifact DEFINITION: Early Horizon culture of the Piura basin in north Peru where deep shaft tombs were discovered. The Vicús tombs have produced abundant metalwork, modeled wares resembling the Gallinazostyle and early Mocheceramics, and a local style of pottery with negative painting. Vicús material covers most of the 1st millennium AD and was eventually replaced by Chimú.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: Type site of a complex of the Ayacucho Valley, central highlands Peru, c 1200-800 BC (Early Horizon), a ceremonial center with Chavinoid features. The pottery, typically thin, brown, and pebble-polished with little or no decoration, has Paracas and Chavín affinities. The U-shaped ceremonial structure is built of stones of alternating size, similar to Cerro Secchin. Skulls of decapitated females have the fronto-occipital flattening typical of Chavín.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Pit-Grave culture CATEGORY: culture DEFINITION: Late Neolithicculture of horizon of the lower Volga and Don steppes, regarded by some as the predecessor to the Corded Ware, Single Grave, or Kurgan culture.
CATEGORY: site; culture DEFINITION: A valley in north Baluchistan, western Pakistan, with a number of sites of a Chalcolithicculture, c 4th-3rd millennia BC. Rana Ghundai, Periano Ghundai, and Moghul Ghundai are the best-known sites. The pottery is painted black or red over a red slip; decoration may be stylized humped cattle and buck and groups of vertical lines linking narrow horizontal bands. Other artifacts include female figurines and copper. Buildings were of mudbrick and burials by cremation. Related material was found stratified beneath that of the Indus Civilization at Harappa, and there are similarities to the painted ware of Tepe Hissar in northern Iran. This phase was succeeded by the 'Incinerary Pot' phase, with burials placed in vessels under house floors, after disarticulation and some cremation.