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Heavenly Horse, Tomb of the
DEFINITION: A 5th century AD mounded tomb of the Silla Kingdom in Kyongju City, Korea. There was an internal wooden chamber with a lacquered wooden coffin of a male dressed in gold crown and with very rich grave goods.
bit, horse
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A metal mouthpiece attached to a bridle, used to control a horse. The domesticated horse was probably first controlled with a simple halter. Bits, the mouthpiece of a horse's bridle, consisting of a bit-mouth and adjacent parts to which the reins are attached. Bits with cheek-pieces of antler did not appear in central Europe until after 1800 BC and they were later replaced by bronze bits. Bits without a cheek-piece, in 2-piece or 3-piece form, were introduced in the Iron Age.
DEFINITION: A large solid-hoofed herbivorous mammal domesticated since prehistoric times and used as a beast of burden, a draft animal, or for riding. During ancient cold periods, horses also occupied the open vegetation which then existed in northern and western Europe. At some sites, horse bones formed a major part of Palaeolithic hunters' diet. It was widespread in temperate regions during the Pleistocene. With the end of the last glaciation, they disappeared from northwest Europe and became restricted to the temperate grassland and dry shrubland of Central Europe and Asia. In America it was hunted to extinction, to be reintroduced only in recent centuries. In the steppes, the horse was domesticated much later than cattle, sheep, etc. The first evidence for possible manipulation of horse by man occurs in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC in sites of the Tripolye culture and related cultures of the Ukraine. It spread rapidly through the Near East with northern peoples like the Hurri, Hyksos, Kassites, and Aryans, particularly after the invention of the chariot in Syria. The domesticated horse was introduced into Egypt from western Asia in the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BC) at roughly the same time as the chariot. Only later, as a heavier stock was bred, did the practice of riding become important. Its use for commercial draft and general agricultural purposes came much later still. Today's horses all seem to represent one species, Equus caballus.
horse bit
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A metal mouthpiece on a bridle, used to control a horse
horsehoof core
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A steep-edged, often large, domed core with flat based striking platforms, heavily step-flanked around their margins. Both very large and smaller varieties are found commonly on Pleistocene sites in most areas of Australia and on some mid-Holocene sites and they are considered characteristic of the Australian Core Tool and Scraper tradition. They were chopping tools mainly used in wood-working. The step-flaking could have resulted from repeated striking to remove flakes.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A covering for the base of a horse's foot consisting of a narrow band of iron in the form of an extended circular arc

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