(View exact match)karumCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: An Akkadian word meaning 'quay' or 'harbor', a place where trade occurs. It was extended to the marketplace by the quay, and hence to a trading post and the corps of merchants of a city. The term also referred to the organization of merchants in the area, which were self-governing. An example is Kanish.
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AlisharSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Alisar, Alisar Huyuk
DEFINITION: A tell southeast of Boghazköy in central Turkey which yielded many occupation levels from Chalcolithic (late 4th millennium) to Phrygian (1st millennium BC). The lowest stratum had eight Chalcolithic levels. The Early Bronze Age levels are characterized by painted pottery with a buff or light red burnish and some geometric patterns in dark brown or buff. There was some trade with Assyria early in the 3rd millennium BC. A karum was built and some Cappadocian tablets recovered. There may have been a hiatus in occupation in the Hittite period (later 2nd millennium).KültepeSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: ancient Kanesh
DEFINITION: A tell site in Cappadocia, central Turkey (Anatolia), a center of Assyrian merchant colony, or karum, of Kanesh (Kanish). It was a Bronze Age city at which a colony of Assyrian merchants set up the trading organization, the karum, to control and foster the trade, especially of metals, between Anatolia and Mesopotamia. It is the best-documented of these sites, with correspondence written in Assyrian cuneiform on clay tablets and constituting the oldest surviving records from Turkey. Nearly 15,000 cuneiform tablets, known as Cappadocian, relating day-to-day activities and business transactions. Supplemented by the evidence from the houses and burials revealed by excavation it throws invaluable light on the country immediately before the rise of the Hittites. The karum was destroyed by fire in the early 1st millennium BC and the trading colony ceased to exist. Excavations in the karum have revealed houses separated by streets and alleys and workshops which suggest that it was also important as an industrial center for metalworking. The associated city had a double fortification and enclosed a palace complex and other public buildings including temples.Leilan, TellSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Shubat Enlil; Tall Leilan
DEFINITION: Site on the Wadi Jarrah, northwest Syria, identified as Shubat Enlil, the capital of Shamshi-Adad I of 1813-1781 BC. Occupation began in the early 4th and extended to the 2nd millennium BC. The sequences include 'Ubaid, Uruk, Ninevite 5, and an occupation with Khabur ware. In the 3rd millennium BC occupation, a walled lower town covered a large area and there was an upper town and possibly a karum. Documents have been recovered that should help shed light on developments in the area as well as Shamshi-Adad's empire.