(View exact match)labyrinthSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: maze
DEFINITION: A building of considerable size, usually underground, containing streets and crossroads, like the catacombs, etc. It was the name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to buildings, entirely or partly subterranean, containing a number of chambers and passages that rendered egress difficult. Later, especially from the European Renaissance onward, the labyrinth or maze occurred in formal gardens, consisting of intricate paths separated by high hedges.
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DEFINITION: A Classical Greek city with the sanctuary of the healing god Asklepios, in the Peloponnese. The lower city and harbor are now submerged, but sections of Cyclopean wall are still visible. Epidauros was famous for the sanctuary, especially from the 4th century BC onwards. There were two Doric cult buildings and a fine Doric rotunda with labyrinth. There were baths, a stadium, hospitals and sanitariums, and a magnificent 4th-century BC theater, which is exceptionally well-preserved.HawaraCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A royal necropolis in Egypt's southeastern Al-Fayyum region, known as the site of the second pyramid of King Amenemhat III (reigned 1818-1770 BC). The pyramid is dated to c 1844-1797 BC and it has a very large mortuary temple attached. Amenemhat III brought economic prosperity by building a system to regulate the inflow of water into Lake Moeris. As part of this great work, the labyrinth described by the Greek historian Herodotus was probably built nearby. Amenemhet erected two colossuses of himself nearby, also described by the Greek historian Herodotus.KnossosSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Cnossus
DEFINITION: A well-known palace site on the island of Crete that has been inhabited almost continuously from 6000 BC when the first Neolithic settlement was constructed. It was the location of the chief palace of the Minoans, near Herakleion at the center of the north coast of Crete. The Neolithic settlement was succeeded by an Early Minoan one, but little is known about this phase. The site was leveled for the palace at the beginning of the Middle Minoan period, c 2000 BC. Around the palace were the main buildings, the throne room, reception halls, shrines, magazines, and the domestic quarter of at least three stories. Large banks of rooms of various types were arranged around a central courtyard, giving rise to the story of the labyrinth. Unlike the other Cretan palaces, Knossos survived the violent eruption of Santorini/Thera c 1450 BC, but came under new rulers, Mycenaeans. The palace was opulent and the frescoes show the bull sports which took place in or near the palace, the courtiers who watched them, others in ceremonial procession carrying offerings, and the priest-king himself. Clay tablets with inscriptions in Linear A and B show the careful accounting which supported this show. From them, too, we learn that in the last phase of occupation the rulers of the palace were Greek. Knossos likely governed much of Crete. The palace site was finally destroyed probably c 1375 BC, though Knossos remained prosperous and powerful, emerging as one of the foremost Greek city-states on Crete.amphitheatreSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: amphitheater
DEFINITION: A large-scale Roman arena open to the elements and surrounded by tiers of seats. They were constructed for exhibiting gladiatorial and other public spectacles (military displays, combats, and wild beast fights) to the populace. The earliest were oval and built of wood, later changing to stone construction. Rome's Colosseum has tiered galleries 2-3 stories in height and has provision for covering the arena with shades to protect against rain or sun. Roofing of so wide an expanse was beyond Roman technology. The arena of the Colosseum had a false timber floor, below which there was a labyrinth of service corridors. The animal cages were situated here, linked with pre-tensioned lifts and automatic trapdoors so that participants and animals could be sent up to the floor of the arena with speed and precision. Somehow Roman engineers staged the grand opening by flooding the arena for a full-scale sea battle. Amphitheatres accommodated a great number of spectators (possibly more than 50,000 at the Colosseum). The Romans derived their ideas from the classic Greek theater and stadium and the model was widely copied throughout the Roman empire. It could be erected on any terrain and set inside an urban center. An early example of the Republican period is at Pompeii the Colosseum is of the Imperial model. The fortress of Caerlon and the towns of Caerwent, Cirencester, Colchester, Dorchester, Richborough, and Wroxeter are some British places which had amphitheatres.