(View exact match)lineageCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Descent in a line from a common progenitor; a group of individuals tracing descent from a common ancestor. A kinship that traces descent through either the male (patrilineal) or female (matrilineal) members.
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DEFINITION: A cemetery site in southeastern Czechoslovakia of the Early Bronze Age where the burials were differentiated according to sex and the orientation was reversed from contemporary sites. At Branc, 81 percent of females were on their left side and 61 percent of males on their right. These mostly simple rectangular pits, sometimes with a wooden lining, of 308 inhumation graves spanning 200-400 years of the early Unetician culture were also analyzed for their grave goods. Within the graves there was clear evidence of community differentiation, with some individuals having more elaborate grave goods than others (on the basis of the rarity of the raw materials used and the time needed to produce the goods). This suggests that there would be leading families, and that wealth and status would tend to be inherited (ascribed) and there is evidence that each member of the community was placed according to lineage, sex, and age.Koobi ForaCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: The site of important hominid finds and stone artifacts on the northeastern shore of Lake Turkana (formerly Lake Rudolf), in northern Kenya, dating between 2.5 and 1 million years ago. Fragmentary remains of more than 150 hominids, including Australopithecus boisei, A. africanus, and Homo habilis were found. At least two lineages seem to represented in the period between 1 and 1.5 million years ago, Homo erectus and Australopithecus robustus/boisei. Earlier fossils may be of the Homo habilis type. Stone tools are found at several levels from the KBS tuff at about 1.8 million years ago up to some alter levels where had axes appear in small quantities. The large-brained skull numbered 1470, dated to c 2 million years ago, was found here. Richard Leakey worked at the site from 1969.Liang-chuSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Liangzhu
CATEGORY: culture; site
DEFINITION: A Middle and Late Neolithic culture in central southern China, with its type site in Jiangsu Province, originating c 3000 BC. Its painted pottery succeeded Yang-Shao culture and preceded or was contemporary with the Longshan culture; Liangzhu is a continuation of the Majibang culture of the same region and is of Hemudu lineage. The jade industry was very advanced with intricate incising and relief carvings of the taotie motif. It was a rice-growing culture.clanCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: A group or tribe of persons from one common family, united by a chieftain. A clan develops for social and security reasons and membership of a clan is defined in terms of actual or purported descent from a common ancestor. The descent is unilineal - i.e., derived only through the male (patriclan) or the female (matriclan). Normally, but not always, the clans are exogamous, marriage within the clan being forbidden and regarded as incest. Clans may segment into subclans or lineages.emblem glyphCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Symbols standing for royal lineages and their domains in the Maya civilization; a Maya glyph identifying a place or polity. Each of the principal Maya cities had its own hieroglyph, which appears in inscriptions of all kinds. All such emblem glyphs share the same prefix, but the main element varies from one city to another. Many of these glyphs can now be linked to specific sites; others have still to be identified. They were first discovered in 1958.haplogroupCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: Any genetic lineage defined by similar genes at a locus on a chromosomemolecular clockCATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A method of tracing evolutionary lines based on the changes in the protein structure and DNA of living organisms that take place over long periods of time. By establishing the degree of difference between the proteins of two species, it is possible to calculate how long ago they shared a common ancestor. Studies of molecular evolution rates have led to the proposition that macromolecules may serve as evolutionary clocks. If the rate of evolution of a protein or gene were approximately the same in the evolutionary lineages leading to different species, proteins and DNA sequences would provide a molecular clock of evolution. The sequences could then be used not only to reconstruct the topology of a phylogeny (the sequence of branching events) but also the time when the various events occurred.sodalityCATEGORY: term
DEFINITION: An organized society, a nonkinship organization created for specific purposes that add to the cohesiveness of that society. It is a social group disregarding kinship or lineage and based on a common interest or voluntary participation.