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African Red Slip ware
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A type of red gloss pottery made in North Africa from the 3rd-6th centuries AD. They had stamped decoration and were widely distributed.
DEFINITION: A Celtic site near Gloucester, England, dated to the 1st century BC. There are four cist graves, one with a woman's skeleton together with bronze bowls, gold and silver bracelets, bronze brooch, and a bronze mirror with incised and enamel decoration.
DEFINITION: An acropolis site on Lipari island of the Aeolian Islands off the north coast of Sicily. Occupation started in the Neolithic c 4000 BC, when obsidian was exploited. In the Bronze Age, Lipari became an important trading center. Mycenaean pottery has been found dating to 1500-1250 BC. The remains of Hellenistic buildings indicate its importance in Classical times. The volcanoes have created is one of the finest stratigraphies of archaeological deposits anywhere. Later in prehistory, Lipari remained important because of its strategic position, which allowed communities positioned there to control trade routes through the Straits of Messina and up the west coast of Italy. The site was abandoned some time in the 9th century BC and not reoccupied until the foundation of a Greek settlement by a mixed group of Cnidians and Rhodians in the early 6th century BC.
DEFINITION: Quartzite quarry in eastern Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Products include Leilira blades.
DEFINITION: Old Thasian settlement in Kavála, Greece, which Philip II of Macedon fortified in 356 BC to control neighboring gold mines. In 42 BC Philippi was the site of the decisive Roman battle in which Mark Antony and Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) defeated Brutus and Cassius, the leading assassins of Julius Caesar. Located in Thrace, it was the object of an unsuccessful attempt at colonization by Thasos in the 6th century BC and for a time was known as Crenides and Daton. After his victory, Mark Antony established Philippi as a colonia for his veterans, and the town gained strategic importance from its position and its proximity to the port of Neapolis. Philippi was important in the early history of Christianity, as is shown by the prominence given to the story of St. Paul preaching there in 49 AD and being consequently imprisoned and extensive early Christian building. Among the ruins are walls, acropolis, forum, gymnasium, macellum, baths, and theaters.
DEFINITION: An archipelago of about 7,100 islands and islets lying about 500 miles (800 km) off the southeastern coast of Asia. A firm archaeological sequence began there c 30,000 years ago, at Tabon Cave on Palawan Island. There are Late Pleistocene stone industries, the spread of a small flake and blade technology after 5000 BC (Holocene), and the arrival and rapid spread of Austronesian-speaking horticulturists after 3000 BC. Rich jar-burial assemblages occur in the islands from about 1000 BC; bronze and iron appear later. Chinese traders visited and lived on the islands from about 1000 AD. Indian culture reached the archipelago during the 14th-16th centuries via Indonesian kingdoms, notably the Java-based kingdom of Majapahit. This is particularly noticeable in Philippine languages and literatures where Sanskrit loanwords and ancient Indian motifs abound. At the beginning of the 15th century Filipinos were primarily shifting cultivators, hunters, and fishermen with animistic beliefs. Islam was introduced later in the same century, followed by Ferdinand Magellan's discovery of the Philippines in 1521.
DEFINITION: A state in northeastern Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico with a series of caves having evidence of incipient agriculture in the Infernillo Phase. The earliest period had crude pebble tools (preprojectile points) and overlain by the Lerma Phase c 7000 BC which had projectile points similar to those of the Old Cordilleran tradition. Desert Culture materials have been found associated with the earliest known cultivated plants in the New World. Here, in the Infernillo phase, it appears that native American squash, peppers, and perhaps beans were being cultivated as early as 6500 BC. Manos and metates are found in increasing numbers in later phases, as well as flexed, wrapped burials. An early cereal, the foxtail millet, was probably domesticated around 4000 BC in Tamaulipas, but it was superseded by primitive maize, c 3000-2200 BC, during the La Perra phase.
X-ray milliprobe
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: X-ray milliprobe analysis; x-ray milliprobe analysis
CATEGORY: tool; technique
DEFINITION: A specialized type of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry which satisfies the particular requirements of certain artifacts. The principle is the same as for X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, but an instrument directs a highly focused X-ray beam at a desired point(s) on the sample surface. Secondary X-rays emitted from this point are then directed to a detector and analyzed. The spectrometer is outside the artifact, in contrast to standard X-ray spectrometry where the specimen is inside the spectrometer. The advantage that the X-ray milliprobe has over the electron probe microanalyzer is the ease with which samples can be prepared. The technique has flexibility and the ability to analyze microscopic areas.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: aeolipylae, eolipyle
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Name of a Greek metal vase with a narrow opening. It was filled with water and placed on a fire to make the chimney draw better or to indicate the wind's direction.
DEFINITION: Any of the successors of Muhammad (Mohammed) as rulers and religious leaders of the Muslim community, the most powerful being those of the Umayyad and 'Abbasid dynasties. A caliphate is the Islamic empire ruled by a caliph. When Muhammad died (June 8, 632), Abu Bakr succeeded to his political and administrative functions as khalifah rasul Allah, successor of the Messenger of God but it was probably under 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, that the term caliph came into use as a title of the civil and religious head of the Muslim state. Abu Bakr and his three immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs. There were then 14 Umayyad caliphs and 38 'Abbasid caliphs whose dynasty fell to the Mongols in 1258. There were titular caliphs from 1258-1517 when the last caliph was captured by the Ottoman sultan Selim I. The Ottoman sultans then claimed the title and used it until it was abolished by the Turkish Republic in 1924.
clipped wing
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A barbed shoulder that has been fractured off or clipped.
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: The part of a vessel most distant from its base as measured along the center of the vessel walls, or the portion of the vessel that would touch the surface on which the vessel rested upside-down (or orifice down).
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Any pottery to which a slip, a thin layer of fine clay, is applied to pottery before firing by dipping the pot into a thick liquid mixture of clay and water. Slip decorates the fabric, often chosen to bake to a color such as red, yellow, or black, and makes the pot more watertight by clogging the pores of the earthenware.
rim and lip stance
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: The shape of the rim and lip of a ceramic vessel relative to the rest of the object.
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A thin slurry of clay left on the surface of a pottery vessel as a result of wetting the body during the vessel's manufacture.
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A form of surface finishing applied to pottery, a mixture of clay and water applied before firing to improve the pot's smoothness and decrease porosity (it makes it more watertight by clogging the pores of the earthenware). Slip often contains the pigment which imparts, after firing, the ground color of the vessel. The slip, being clay-based, is subject to the same color variation through different firing conditions (oxidizing or reducing) as the clay itself. Hematite slips, intended to be red, occasionally fire to a shiny black finish in a reducing atmosphere. Slips may or may not be polished after drying, and all sorts of decorative techniques may be used to alter this coating. Used as a decoration, slip is applied fairly thickly to form white or tinted patterns; this technique is called slip-painted.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The surface finish obtained after a slip-covered vessel has been fired. When a slip is made darker than the paste of the vessel which it covers, the vessel is said to be color-coated.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of pottery decorated with slip before firing. The earliest English examples were made at Wrotham in Kent in the early 17th century and some of the most decorative by Thomas Toft in Staffordshire.

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