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CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of blade tool retouched along both sides to form a slug-shaped object.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A small clublike weapon, usually of stone, crafted to fit snugly in the hand, for pounding. It often had a perforated head and was attached to a shaft of wood (or ivory or horn), often tapering towards the end that was gripped. Many maceheads have been excavated from Predynastic and Early Dynastic cemeteries in Egypt. In medieval times, it was made of iron and used for breaking defensive armor.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The stone or metal top of a mace, usually perforated. In 1968 Fiona Roe published a classification of British late Neolithic stone maceheads, recognizing five main groups: ovoid; Maesmore group; flint nodule type; Thames pestle; and Orkney pestle.
DEFINITION: In the Aztec period, commoners who made up the bulk of the population and who cultivated land held by his or her descent group. The macehual class was further differentiated into class levels. Certain occupations were accorded higher prestige than others (merchants, lapidarians, goldsmiths, and featherworkers are mentioned, and the list probably included stone sculptors); and all urban occupations were assigned higher status as compared with rural farming.
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: In Roman antiquity, a marketplace for perishable foods consisting of shops around a colonnaded court; the center building was either round or octagonal. Some more sophisticated examples have individual architectural features associated with them, such as (at Leptis Magna and Pompeii) a porticoed enclosed rectangular courtyard, with one or two colonnaded pavilions in the central area. At Pompeii, shops under the portico face inward into the market and also outward into the surrounding streets. At Rome, the Macellum Magnum erected by Nero was apparently a grand-scale example, doubling both the portico and the pavilion into two-storied structures.
MacEnery, Reverend J. (17??-d. 1841)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: A Roman Catholic priest who excavated at Kent's Cavern, England, and discovered Palaeolithic flint tools alongside the bones of extinct animals in an undisturbed stratum. He concluded that man and these ancient animals must have coexisted, but these views found little acceptance at the time. MacEnery died without publishing his results; William Pengelly did publish the report of MacEnery's excavations (1869).

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