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DEFINITION: Lower Palaeolithic site outside Leipzig, Germany, where gravel pits have gravels earlier than the Saale ice maximum advance in the region. They contain a cold-indicating fauna of early penultimate glacial date and numerous stone artifacts, especially Levallois flakes, sidescrapers, and handaxes. Artifacts and faunal remains are buried in the riverine gravels, probably deposited during the late Middle Pleistocene.
DEFINITION: City in east-central Uzbekistan that is one of the oldest cities of Central Asia. In the 4th century BC, then known as Maracanda, it was the capital of Sogdiana and was captured (329 BC) by Alexander the Great. It benefited from its location in a fertile oasis at the point where the Silk Route from the West divided, one branch proceeding to China and other to India. Excavations have revealed abundant Graeco-Sogdiana material. A palace of the 6th or 7th century AD yielded wall paintings comparable with the famous paintings from Pendzhikent.
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A Nubian microlithic industry of 8000-6000 years ago in the Sudanese Nile Valley. The typology of the industry shows certain Saharan affinities. By the 6th millennium BC, some of the tool makers had adopted a specialized fishing economy using harpoons with barbed bone heads, as seen at Catfish Cave near the Second Nile Cataract.
Stein, Sir Mark Aurel (1862-1943)
CATEGORY: person
DEFINITION: British archaeologist and explorer born in Hungary who was a great traveler of central and western Asia (especially Chinese Turkistan), recording an extraordinary number of archaeological sites. He was also Superintendent of the Indian Archaeological Survey (1910-29).
CATEGORY: measure
DEFINITION: A reasonably permanent, fixed point of reference, especially a point of known position and elevation used in mapping.
boundary marker
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An indicator of the extent of an area of land.
butcher mark
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cut mark, chop mark, scrape
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Any mark made on animal bone by stone tools during butchering. These marks are used to associate humans with animal remains for a relative date. The marks are classified according to form and function as cut marks, chop marks, and scrapes.
CATEGORY: artifact; technique
DEFINITION: Decorative technique in which cord or string is wrapped around a paddle and pressed against an unfired clay vessel, leaving the twisted mark of the cord
crop mark
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: Variations in the color or growth of surface vegetation that indicate the outline of buried archaeological features, such as walls, pits, or buildings; visible by aerial observation or photography. These indications are revealed by the abnormal growth of overlying crops. Buried archaeological features such as walls stunt crop growth; ditches increase crop growth. Buried pits and ditches may retain moisture better than the surrounding subsoil and during a dry spell plant growth is often enhanced over such features.
cup-and-ring mark
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cup mark, cup and ring mark
CATEGORY: artifact; lithics
DEFINITION: The commonest form of rock carving in the British Isles, consisting of a cup-like depression surrounded by one or more concentric grooves. Cup-and-ring marks are found on standing stones, singular or in stone circles, and on the slabs of burial cists, as well as on natural rock surfaces. In its classic form most cup-and-ring art belongs in the Bronze Age, but the motif occurs on passage graves, for example in the Clava tombs and on the capstones at Newgrange, where it may show links with similar rock carvings in northwest Spain. They are also found in Ireland and Scotland and can be dated to the Neolithic period of the 4th-3rd millennium BC.
cut mark
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Any microscopic scratches on the surface of an animal bone, with distinctive V-shaped grooves. The marks indicate meat and muscle were removed from the bone using stone flakes.
fire mark
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A wall plate used by insurance companies to identify insured property.
frost mark
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A variation in the amount of frost retained on the ground that indicates the presence of buried archaeological features, detected primarily by aerial photography. The differential retention of frost in hollows and over different types of material can reveal the features of an archaeological site.
grass-marked pottery
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: grass-tempered pottery
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: Pottery either marked or tempered with grass. In western Britain, there are examples of pottery covered with 'grass' impressions from Ulster, the Hebrides, and Cornwall, especially around the 5th-6th centuries AD. The term also refers to crude handmade ware made in various parts of Frisia in the Migration Period and in certain parts of southern England in the Early Saxon period in which ferns and other organic material was used as tempering.
maker's mark
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Manufacturing marks etched or stamped onto mass-produced ceramics, glassware, and metals.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In rock art studies, any drawing, painting, engraving, or other modification of nature which is the product of some human action.
markers' mark
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Any manufacturing mark etched or stamped onto mass-produced ceramics, glassware, and metals.
DEFINITION: A mode of exchange in which the price of a commodity is fixed by the relative proportions of supply and demand. The term may also be applied more specifically to the place where people come together for transactions of this sort, or the occasion on which they do so. A degree of social control is necessary, for instance, to guarantee access to the market and the security of traders, but prices are fixed independently. It usually involves a system of pricemaking through negotiation. Market has the variable meanings of a) a process of buyer-seller exchange, b) the demand for something, and c) a kind of economy.
DEFINITION: An exchange system that often involves currencies and generally extends beyond kinsmen and a small group of trading partners; marketing involves sellers minimizing their costs and maximizing the return to make a profit.
CATEGORY: language
DEFINITION: Notations on tokens and envelopes. Some of the envelopes have markings corresponding to the clay shapes inside. Moreover, these markings are more or less similar to the shapes drawn on clay tablets that date back to about 3100 BC and that are unambiguously related to the Sumerian language. These markings are thought to constitute a logographic form of writing consisting of some 1,200 different characters representing numerals, names, and such material objects as cloth and cow.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A mark on a coin indicating the mint at which it was struck
paho mark
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A small hole in the floor of a structure that is interpreted as an impression left by the planting of a prayer stick. Paho marks are usually conical, 1-2 cm in diameter and 2-5 cm deep, often occur in clusters, and are often filled with sand. They are often associated with a sipapu or rectangular central pit.
percussion mark
DEFINITION: Any distinctive, striated pit on the surface of an animal bone indicating the bone was broken by human hands using a hammerstone.
plow mark
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: plough mark, plowmark, plow scar
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: Any mark left in buried soil indicating that the land has been plowed at some remote time, giving evidence of ancient agricultural activity. Plow marks have been found, for example, under several British Neolithic monuments and are valuable evidence for ancient clearance and cultivation. They are identified by sharp physical discontinuities in soil color and texture as seen in excavation profiles or plan-view.
shadow mark
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: A surface shadow on an archaeological site that is caused by irregularities in elevation, indicating the presence of submerged features such as earthworks and ditches. These may be revealed through aerial photography. Shadow marks are best seen in the low sun of evenings and early mornings.
soil mark
CATEGORY: feature
DEFINITION: Any visible irregularity in the appearance of the soil surface, indicating traces of buried sites or features on the surface of plowed or otherwise disturbed ground. As revealed through aerial photography, a darker area may indicate human wastes, or a lighter area a former road or trail.
string mark
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: The marks on the base of a vessel caused by the potter detaching the pot from the wheel by means of a wire or string.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: time marker, horizon marker, temporal marker
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A temporally significant class of artifacts defined by a consistent clustering of attributes.

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