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DEFINITION: A site on the Kamoa River in southeastern Zaire that was the first place in central Africa at which Acheulian artifacts were found, revealing human occupation in the region back to the Earlier Stone Age. The culture evolved through the Later Stone Age.
DEFINITION: A major island group in the south-central Pacific Ocean about 1,600 miles (2,600 km) northeast of New Zealand. American Samoa, a dependency of the United States, consists of the six islands. Western Samoa, an independent nation, consists of the nine islands. The islands were settled by Lapita colonists in the late 2nd millennium BC. There is a pottery sequence through the 1st millennium BC, after which pottery manufacture ceases. On the evidence of adze typology, Samoa may have been the source of the first settlers to penetrate eastern Polynesia, perhaps to the Marquesas, in the early 1st millennium AD. The last 1500 years of Samoan prehistory are associated with above-ground monuments, including earthwork forts, earth or stone houses, god-house platforms, and agricultural terraces.
Tirimoana pa
DEFINITION: Earthwork hillfort on Hawkes Bay, North Island, New Zealand, with early storage pits for sweet potatoes dated to c1000 AD. This is evidence that Maoris grew sweet potatoes form initial settlement of New Zealand. The main ditch and bank defenses with palisades were built between 1400-1600.
DEFINITION: Any of several extinct, ostrichlike flightless birds native to New Zealand and constituting the order Dinornithiformes. Moas (a Polynesian term) ranged in size from a turkey to an ostrich. Moa-hunting was once an economic mainstay of the Archaic Maoris, even though large concentrations only occurred in certain regions, especially east coastal South Island. Early Polynesian peoples hunted moas for food; they made spear points, hooks, and ornaments from their bones, and water carriers from their eggs. Although the larger moas probably had become extinct by the end of the 17th century, a few smaller species may have survived into the 19th.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Colossal stone figure found on Easter Island carved between c 600-1500 AD. There are 800-1000 known quarried from the volcanic tuff at Rano Raraku. They can be up to 10 meters tall and weigh 28 tons. Many were put in ahu on the coast, on top and facing inland. The moai were probably ancestor figures. Most of the moai were knocked over during internal strife on the island. The term moai also refers to small wooden statue of uncertain religious significance, also carved on Easter Island. The figures are of two types, moai kavakava (male) and moai paepae (female). They were sometimes used for fertility rites but were more often used for harvest celebrations. During the time between these public festivals, the statues were wrapped in bark cloth and kept in private homes.
moated site
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A class of sites in places like Thailand, Cambodia, England, Ireland, and Flanders. In the first two, they are known from protohistoric and early historic sites and are settlements encircled by one or more irregular moats. In England, Ireland, and Flanders, they were built during the late medieval period. There was a tradition of building defensive moats around castles and manorial establishments and it was taken up by wealthy farmers later. In marshy areas, a moat provided an extra means of drainage when the climate was deteriorating and acted as a source of both dry-season water and edible aquatic flora and fauna.

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