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Nana Mode
DEFINITION: An Iron Age village site in the Central African Republic, dated to about the 7th century AD. Excavations have revealed pottery decorated by a carved wooden toothed wheel or disk. It has been suggested that this type of pottery may have been made by speakers of an Ubangian language.
Noah's Ark model
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: replacement hypothesis
DEFINITION: A theory that modern humans originated in a single area of Africa and spread throughout the world, replacing other, more archaic, human types. This view is supported by the so-called Eve theory which postulates that all modern humans are descended from a common mother. The opposing hypothesis is often called the candelabra model.
XTENT modeling
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: Technique used to generate a settlement hierarchy which assigns territories to centers based on their scale, assuming that the size of each center is directly proportional to its area of influence. It is said that it overcomes the limitations of both central place theory and Thiessen polygons and that hypothetical political maps may be constructed from survey data.
accumulation model
DEFINITION: The theory that cultural changes occur gradually as a society accumulates behavioral traits.
anatomically modern human
DEFINITION: The group of humans who were within the range of the modern human species, showing the anatomical traits of moderns such as a cranial capacity of over 1400 cubic centimeters and a chin.
behaviorally modern human
DEFINITION: The group of humans who had the capabilities and showed the range of behavior of modern humans, including the ability to use symbolic behavior.
candelabra model
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: regional continuity theory
DEFINITION: One of the theories of human development in which modern humans are thought to have descended from Homo erectus in Africa, Europe, and Asia. The opposing theory, known as the Noah's Ark model, holds that modern humans originated in one single area of Africa.
centrally based wandering model
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A model for hunter-gatherer cultures centered around base camps.
cognized model
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A representation of reality which is based in part on idealized expectations about the real situation.
digital elevation model
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A three-dimensional representation of the landscape within a defined area.
gravity model
DEFINITION: A theory, derived from Newton's law of universal gravitation, that the degree of interaction between two communities is directly proportional to their to their proximity to each other. The model has been tested with data from modern societies and is valid for a wide range of types of interaction, such as migration, travel, and communication. The model can also be reformulated to determine when the balance of interaction swings from one location to another.
CATEGORY: artifact; technique
DEFINITION: The most specific category of classification for artifacts, representing items within the same type and variety that share further common attributes. Modes are single or multiple attributes whose frequencies change through time and space. They are useful in constructing culture history.
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A devices used by archaeologists to aid the interpretation of data; models consist of hypothetical reconstructions of dynamic processes partly based on material remains and partly testing the validity of interpretations of material culture. They are idealized representations of the real world, used to demonstrate a simplified version of some of its characteristics. Models vary in complexity and can be physical representations or literary descriptions. It might be a physical model of a site or landscape to explain some feature of its function or organization; such models at full scale are well known in experimental archaeology. A simple model might be a map showing, for example, the distribution of sites in a region or a scatter diagram showing the relationship between two measured variables. Models need not be based on specific archaeological data, but can be derived from a number of sources: invented data can be generated by computer simulation; geometrical and mathematical models can also be used, such as central place theory or the rank-size rule in the study of regional settlement, or catastrophe theory in the study of cultural collapse. General systems theory can also be a source of systems models designed to show a simplified version of the working of a complex social or economic organization. The term model can also be used in a less specific sense for any general mode of thought in which archaeological research is conducted, for example descriptive, historical, or ecological. Models may also be diachronic or synchronic. The concept of formulating a model, testing it and refining it, is frequently applied in a non-mathematical way and this is the way in which it is most often used in archaeology. In this sense it is either synonymous with 'hypothesis' or refers to a number of interlocking hypotheses.
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A ceramic vessel construction technique where a mass of clay is handworked into a rough approximation of the vessel through punching, pinching, and/or drawing.
operational model
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: A representation of reality that is based on observation of how the component parts of the real situation operate.
predictive model
CATEGORY: technique
DEFINITION: The use of GIS and other tools to construct a model of a site location, to predict particular kinds of archaeological sites based on their tendency to occur in the same kinds of place.
resource-stress model
CATEGORY: term; technique
DEFINITION: The control of stress caused by food shortages by rectifying behavior in response to changing conditions.
type-variety-mode analysis
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: type-variety system
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A taxonomic classification of pottery based on stylistic attributes that defines a hierarchy of modes and varieties (minimal units), types, groups, complexes, and spheres (maximal units)

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