(View exact match)paletteCATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A small slab of stone for grinding and mixing substances like paint or cosmetics. A series from early Egypt, as that of Narmer, is important since the relief decoration provides valuable evidence on the art and history of the country at the beginning of Dynastic times, c 3000 BC. The term is also used to describe scribal palettes. Cosmetic/ceremonial palettes were usually of siltstone (greywacke) and are found in grave goods as early as Badarian period (c 5500-4000 BC). Scribal palettes, long rectangular pieces of wood or stone (averaging 30 cm long, 6 cm wide), had a shallow central groove or slot to hold reed brushes or pens and circular depressions for cakes of pigment. The order of colors was white, then yellows, reds, blues, to black.
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DEFINITION: An Upper Egyptian, Predynastic culture of the later 5th millennium BC, named for the type site of el-Badari, on the east bank of the Nile River. It extended over much of Middle Egypt also. Excavations during the 1920s revealed settlements and cemeteries dating to about 4000 BC (Neolithic). Their fine pottery, black-topped brown ware (later red), was very thin-walled, well-baked, and often decorated with a burnished ripple. This effect was apparently produced by firing it inverted to prevent the air from circulating inside and over the upper rim, keeping these areas black whereas the base and lower wall externally were oxidized to brown or a good red color. Other remains include combs and spoons of ivory, slate palettes, female figurines; and copper, shell, and stone beads. Badarian materials have also been found at Jazirat Armant, al-Hammamiyah, Hierakonpolis (modern Kawm al-Ahmar), al-Matmar, and Tall al-Kawm al-Kabir. Flinders Petrie and other found large numbers of graves with artifacts in 1893-1894 and divided it into two phases: Naqada Culture I and Naqada Culture II.Ballana and QustulCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Two Nubian necropolis sites on opposing sides of the Nile, 15 km south of Abu Simbel and now submerged under Lake Nassar. Ballana was the type site of a period which lasted from the decline of the Meroitic empire to the arrival of Christianity (c 350-700 AD). Some pictographic writing dating c 3400-3100 BC was discovered at Qustul on pottery, slate palettes, and stone. Qustul may have been one of the earliest places of state formation in the world when rulers of the A-Group culture adopted symbols of kingship similar to those of contemporary kings of Egypt's Naqadah II-III periods.BatCATEGORY: deity
DEFINITION: A goddess of the seventh Upper Egyptian nome, usually represented by a cow's head with curling horns. The earliest depiction may have been the pair of heads at the top of the Narmer palette (c 3100 BC).Chien wareSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Chien Yao, Jian Yao, Temmoku ware, Tenmoku ware
DEFINITION: A dark brown or blackish glazed Chinese stoneware made for domestic use, mainly during the Sung dynasty (960-1279) and into the early 14th century. Within its limited palette, Chien ware has a range of variations. By careful control of the kiln temperatures, streaking and iridescent patches were formed on the glaze to make the hare's "fur" and "oil spot" glaze which were the most prized. Large deposits of kiln wastes have been found at Chien-yang and Chien-an in Fukien province. Tea bowls are by far the most common though not the only form of Chien ware that survives. Used by Ch'an (Zen) Buddhist monks the highly esteemed tea bowls were carried back to Japan by Japanese monks who had visited China to study Buddhism. Until the late 16th century Chien ware was the type of tea bowl preferred for the highly ritualized Japanese tea ceremony.HierakonpolisSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Kom el-Ahmar; ancient Nekhen
DEFINITION: An important Predynastic and Archaic settlement and necropolis in southern Upper Egypt (Luxor). The town's population was in excess of 5000 and it was particularly associated with the god Horus. In proto-dynastic times Hierakonpolis was the capital of southern Egypt. Discoveries of this period are stone palettes, votive objects, and mace-heads, with carving illustrating the rise of the kings to the divine status they enjoyed in pharaonic times. A series of successive shrines dates from early Archaic/late Predynastic.KaderoCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: Important Khartoum Neolithic site on the edge of the old Nile flood plain which has lent information on the early development of food production in the central Sudan. Kadero was an extensive village inhabited during the second half of the 4th millennium BC. Herding was mainly of cattle, with some sheep and goats. There were many grindstones, and grain impressions on the pottery indicate the presence of wild panicum, sorghum, and finger millet. Burials included stone mace heads, palettes, carnelian bead necklaces, ivory bracelets, pottery, and ochre.MajolicaSYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Maiolica; faience; delft
DEFINITION: Tin-glazed earthenware - a distinctive kind of colorful, decorated earthenware that is tin enameled and glazed - usually of Italian, Spanish, or Mexican origin. This earthenware was introduced by Moorish potters from the island of Majorca in the 15th century. Distinguishing features of Majolica ware are coarseness of ware, intricacy of pattern, occasionally prismatic glaze. Made of potter's clay mixed with marl and sand, and is soft or hard according to the nature of the composition and the degree of heat under which it is fired in the kiln. Soft wares are either unglazed or lustrous, or glazed, or enameled. The majolica painter's palette was usually restricted to five colors: cobalt blue, antimony yellow, iron red, copper green, and manganese purple; the purple and blue were used, at various periods, mainly for outline. A white tin enamel was used also for highlights or alone on the white tin glaze in what was called bianco sopra bianco, white on white. The Italian lustrous ware is properly Majolica and originated in s Faenza Deruta Urbino Orvieto Gubbio Florence and Savona.Minshat Abu OmarCATEGORY: site
DEFINITION: A Predynastic and Early Dynastic/Archaic cemetery site located in the northeastern Delta, Egypt, which, like the roughly contemporary settlement of Maadi, shows evidence of trade with southern Palestine. Grave goods (ceramic and stone vessels, slate palettes, jewelry, copper tools) included imports from Palestine and Upper Egypt.Narmer (c 3100 BC)SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Menes
DEFINITION: One of the first pharaohs of Egypt, perhaps to be equated with Menes who founded the 1st Dynasty c 3200 BC and mythical founder of Memphis (and united Egypt). He ruled in Upper Egypt in the late Pre-Dynastic Period and is best known from the 'Main Deposit' of ritual objects at Hierakonpolis. The most important record of him, indeed one of the first from Egypt, is a slate palette on which he is shown in the White Crown of Upper Egypt conquering his enemies on one side, and in the Red Crown of Lower Egypt reconstructing the land on the other. The Narmer Palette is in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo. Narmer is thought to have been buried in Tomb B17-18 in the Umm el-Qa'ab royal cemetery at Abydos.WepwawetCATEGORY: deity
DEFINITION: Egyptian jackal-god portrayed on the Narmer palette at the end of the fourth millennium BC, the opener of the way for king's foreign conquests or for deceased into netherworld. Asyut (Syut) was the center of his worship.