CATEGORY: artifact DEFINITION: A collection of archaeological artifacts, ecofacts, and material that may not be related -- that are together through accident or natural forces rather than human activity. Also used to describe a site with a mass of intercut features of different periods.
CATEGORY: term; language DEFINITION: Writing material made from the skin of calves, sheep, or goat, which gradually replaced papyrus during the late Roman empire, resulting in the book (codex) replacing the scroll. The name apparently derives from the ancient Greek city of Pergamum (in Turkey), where parchment is said to have been invented in the 2nd century BC. It is less fragile, and could also be reused after the original text had been erased by scraping (called palimpsests). The finer kind of parchment known as vellum is from the skins of calves, kids, and dead-born lambs. In the 4th century AD, vellum or parchment as a material and the codex as a form became dominant, although there are later examples of rolls, and papyrus was occasionally used for official documents until the 10th century. Paper then took over from 14th century.