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DEFINITION: A area of southern Italy along the Bay of Naples that was the location of the Greek colony Cumae and was once controlled by the Etruscans. Campanian pottery was made before the middle of the 4th century BC at both Cumae and Capua.
Campanian pottery
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A type of South Italian pottery. Productions seems to have started before the middle of the 4th century BC, perhaps under the influence of Sicilian pottery. There seem to have been three main centers of production: two at Capua and one at Cumae. Late in its production it seems to draw inspiration from Apulian pottery.
DEFINITION: A ruined ancient Mayan city, in extreme western Honduras near the Guatemalan border, one of the largest and most impressive sites of that civilization. Copán was an important Maya city during the Classic Period (c 300-900 AD), peaking in the 8th century with as many as 20,000 people. The site has stone temples, two large pyramids, several stairways and plazas, and a ball court for tlachtli. Most of these structures center on a raised platform called the Acropolis and are constructed in a locally available greenish volcanic tuff. Copán is particularly known for the ornate stone carving on the buildings and the portrait sculptures on its many stelae. The Hieroglyphic Stairway, which leads to one of the temples, is beautifully carved with 2500 hieroglyphics total on the risers of each of its 63 steps. During the Classic Period, there is evidence that astronomers in Copán calculated the most accurate solar calendar produced by the Maya up to that time. The site's ruins were discovered by Spanish explorers in the early 16th century and rediscovered by American traveler John Lloyd Stephens in 1839, who purchased the site for $50. Since then much of the beautiful carving has deteriorated but the highly detailed pen-and-ink drawings of his colleague Frederick Catherwood still survive and are a great source of iconographic detail. Restoration work revealed much of Copán's political and dynastic history through the decipherment of hieroglyphic inscriptions on its monuments. A dynasty of at least 16 kings ruled Copán from about 426-822 AD; the Maya had completely abandoned the site by about 1200. Finds date from the Late Prehistoric period (c 300 BC-AD 250.
East Spanish rock art
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An art style of southeastern Spain, found on the walls of shallow rock shelters and probably of the Mesolithic period. The subjects are lively scenes from everyday life, with warriors, hunters, dancers, and animals. The style is unlike that of cave art, the figures being small and painted in solid colors with no attempt at light and shade.
Expanded Notch
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A notch type which is composed of two notches in close proximity that leave a nipple as a remnant. Also known as a Double Notch.
Harappan civilization
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Indus Valley civilization
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: One of the great civilizations of antiquity, located in Pakistan and northwest India in the 3rd millennium BC. Nearly 300 settlements of the civilization are known: two large cities (Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa), and a number of smaller towns and villages (Chanhu-Daro, Judeirjo-Daro, Kalibangan, and Lothal). The Harappan civilization was characterized by a high level of architectural, craft, and technical achievement. We know little of the political, social, and economic structure of the civilization because, although it was literate, the script remains undeciphered. Like other early civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Harappan civilization was based on the cultivation of cereal crops (plus rice and cotton), probably with irrigation. Among the most distinctive achievements of this civilization are the architecture and town planning, with the use of true baked brick for building, and cities and towns laid out on a grid-iron street plan, perhaps the earliest examples of town planning in the world. Among crafts, the most outstanding were the seals, mostly made of steatite and decorated with carefully executed incised designs. The Harappan civilization came to an end early in the 2nd millennium, either as a result of environmental factors (excessive flooding) or as a result of invasions by Aryan intruders. It is divided into three phases - Early, Mature (Urban), and Late (Post-Urban) and emerged from Punjab and Baluchistan regions.
DEFINITION: The second largest island of the West Indies of the Greater Antilles, which since the 17th century has been divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Hispano-Moresque pottery
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A tin-glazed, lustrous, highly decorated earthenware made by Moorish potters in Span in the late medieval period, chiefly at Málaga in the 15th century, and in the region of Manises, near Valencia, in the 16th century. They tend to be plates and jugs with bold semi-abstract designs painted on a creamy background and with a gold luster finish. These wares were much in demand throughout Europe and, judging from finds in northern Europe, they were widely traded. The tin glaze was applied over a design usually traced in cobalt blue; after the first firing, the luster, a metallic pigment, was applied by brush over the tin glaze, and the piece was fired again. Imitation of this pottery in Italy led to the development of Italian maiolica ware.
DEFINITION: The site of a catastrophic volcanic eruption in south-central El Salvador in the late Pre-Classic Period, c 260 AD. At least two volcanic events occurred close together and the effects devastated a large area, forcing the local populations of early Maya to migrate north and east into the lowlands of central Guatemala and Belize. This sudden influx of migrants may have given rise to the improved agricultural methods which mark the beginning of the Classic Maya civilization. Archaeological evidence at Barton Ramie (and at Altar De Sacrificios) indicates a period of noticeable environmental and demographic change at that time.
Japanese periodization
CATEGORY: chronology
DEFINITION: A classification used by archaeologists and historians: Jomon 10,000-300 BC, Yayoi 300 BC-300 AD, Kofun 300-710, Nara 710-794, Heian 794-1183, Medieval (Kamakura, Muromachi, Momoyama) 1183-1603, Feudal (Edo/Tokugawa) 1603-1868, Meiji 1868-1914, Taisho 1914-1925, Showa 1925-1988, and Heisei 1989-present.
DEFINITION: A Neolithic site in Sulawesi which, along with Minanga Sipakko, has produced late Neolithic assemblages of polished stone adzes, ground slate projectile points, and pottery. Some aspects of the artifacts are similar to Taiwanese Neolithic and Lapita wares of Oceania.
DEFINITION: A city in Norway founded in 997 by King Olaf I Tryggvason; he built a church and a royal residence, Kongsgård, there. The pottery, glass and coins from the excavations indicate that the site flourished in the 9th century. Like Hedeby and Birka, Kaupangr seems to have maintained extensive contacts with the Franks and Slavs as well as sustained links with the Arab world.
Kota Tampan
DEFINITION: Site in peninsular Malaysia with a pebble and flake industry dating to 31,000 BP in the Upper Palaeolithic. . In northern Malaya a large series of choppers and chopping tools made on quartzite pebbles and found in Middle Pleistocene tin-bearing gravels have been referred to collectively as the Tampanian, since they come from Kota Tampan in Perak.
DEFINITION: A limeworks cave at the entrance to the Makapan Valley in northern Transvaal, South Africa, with important samples of Autralopithecus africanus and other fossil animal remains (antelope, baboon. Perhaps the best-known so-called archaeological evidence from the South African cave sites came from Makapansgat. There are no typical stone tools, but many bone and horn fragments are alleged to have been modified as tools, the so-called "osteodontokeratic" (bone-tooth-horn) culture. The hominid remains may date from about three million years ago. The nearby Cave of Hearths has Acheulian and later deposits.
DEFINITION: Site on the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico near the Tuxtla Mountains, with a sequence beginning in the Early Preclassic. Its Early Classic settlement was influenced by Teotihuacán and contains a barrio (neighborhood) in the Central Mexico architectural style and was part of the Teotihuacán trade network.
DEFINITION: A Late Post-Classic Maya center in west-central Yucatán, Mexico. The walled town covered 4.2 square km and contained 3,600 houses, as well as temples which are a rather poor copy of those at Chichén Itzá. This dense concentration of housing represented something new in Mayan architecture, and walls are found at other sites of the period. The population ranged from 6,000-15,000. After the decline of Chichén Itzá in about 1200 AD, Mayapán became the dominant city in northern Yucatan and was able to extort tribute from several neighboring states. Among the major features are a central temple-pyramid complex dedicated to Kulculkan (the Mayan name for Quetzacoatl). The most characteristic artifact is the highly elaborate incensario (incense burner). The end of this relatively short-lived center was precipitated by internal dissension resulting in the summary execution of the ruling elite and it was finally sacked in a local uprising in c 1400; abandonment followed shortly thereafter in c1450.
Mazapan ware
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A ceramic style developing out of Coyotlatelco and first appearing in association with major architecture at Tula, Mexico in the post-Classic Toltec phase (9th-12th century AD). The orange-on-buff (or red-on-buff) pottery was decorated by straight or wavy parallel lines produced by multiple brushes.
DEFINITION: Palaeolithic cave site in Haute-Garonne, French Pyrenees, which has a deep central cave with traces of probable (middle) Magdalenian engravings on the walls. There is also a series of clay statues and bas-reliefs. It is famous for a modeled clay body of a life-sized bear or bear cub, probably originally covered with a bear pelt and apparently speared in ritual ceremonies.
Pan Shan
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A branch of the Yang-Shao culture of Neolithic China with a distinctive painted pottery, c 2500-2000 BC. There are extensive cemeteries in the hills of the upper Yellow River basin in Kansu province which yielded great quantities of the pottery with inhumation burials. The most common were large globular urns painted with bold spiral or other curvilinear designs or lozenges in red, black, purple, or brown. The 'death pattern' consists of a red band between two black ones internally fringed. The geometric patterns or stylized figures are of men, fish, and birds; there is no glaze. Coiling was common, but some of the wares were probably shaped on a slow, or hand-turned, wheel. The handles are set low on the body of the urns, and the lower part of the body is left undecorated - as with most Greek Proto-Geometric funerary ware, to which there is a certain likeness. Striking parallels have been found in Turkestan, the Caucasus, and the Ukraine.
DEFINITION: Chinese Neolithic Yang-Shao culture site of c 4500 BC with slash-and-burn agriculture, domesticated animals, and handmade painted pottery.
Panaramitee style
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An art style found in many parts of Australia involving rock engravings featuring circles and tridents (possibly kangaroo and emu tracks) and dating to Pleistocene times. It is found at Panaramitee in the Flinder Ranges, South Australia, and arid regions in south Australia, New South Wales, north Queensland, and the Northern Territory; isolated examples have also been found in northern Tasmania and near Sydney. Engravings were found at Ingaladdi dating to 5000-7000 bp, at Early Man Shelter c 13,000 bp, and Karolta c 30,000 years old. The style involves the pecking on rock surfaces by indirect percussion of clusters of hundreds of small figures, usually about 10 cm tall, in outline or infilled forms. The designs include dots, spirals, mazes, and crescents, human footprints, lizards, radiating lines and tectiforms (roof shapes). The art is thought to be of considerable antiquity on the basis of still inconclusive evidence of patination, distribution in both Australia and Tasmania, and the absence of stone tool types belonging to the post-2000 BC Australian Small Tool Tradition.
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: A state of the kingdom of Champa on the coast of southern Vietnam. It became the center of Champan activity from the mid-8th century onward.
DEFINITION: A term meaning 'all Greek', referring to regional sanctuaries which attracted dedications from within the Greek world.
DEFINITION: Chinese archaeological site from about the middle of the Shang dynasty period (18th-12th century BC). The site, located near the confluence of the Yangtze and Han-shui rivers in central Hupei, consists of five graves and two storage pits. It is thought to be the southernmost outpost of the political system in the 15th-13th centuries BC. Palatial foundations, elite burials with Erligang-style bronze ritual vessels, and a hang-tu city wall have been excavated. There are poor burials, pottery, stone tools, and other bronze items. The earliest wood carvings yet found in China were at Panlongcheng.
DEFINITION: Province of the Roman Empire, corresponding to present western Hungary and parts of eastern Austria, Slovenia, and northern Yugoslavia (Vojvodina) incorporated into the Roman Empire in 10 AD. (Roman conquest began there about 35 BC under Octavian.) Pannonia was a prosperous Roman frontier province with numerous villas. The principal town was Aquincum (part of modern Budapest). The emperor Trajan divided the province about 106 AD. The western and northern districts constituted Pannonia Superior, which was the focal point of the Roman wars with the Marcomanni during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180). The southern and eastern districts were organized as Pannonia Inferior under Diocletian (284-305). Pannonia Superior was divided into Pannonia Prima and Pannonia Ripariensis (or Savia), and Pannonia Inferior was divided into Valeria and Pannonia Secunda. Pannonia was the birthplace of several Roman emperors of the 3rd century, and the province provided large numbers of troops for the Roman army. The grave barbarian threat in the 4th century AD forced the Romans to withdraw after 395. The Pannonians were mainly Illyrians, but there were some Celts in the western part of the province.
DEFINITION: A Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age site inland from Syracuse in southeast Sicily, occupied c 13th-8th centuries BC. The 5,000 rock-cut tombs which honeycomb the hillside around have yielded great quantities of material. Pottery and metal goods from the tombs indicate trading contacts with both mainland Italy and the Aegean. The characteristic local pottery is wheelmade, red-slipped, and burnished. Four phases run from contemporary with Late Mycenaean c 1200 BC to well after the first Greek colonies formed in the 8th century BC. At least one public building has been exposed: a large stone built structure described as an anaktoron or palace.
Pantano Longarini
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A large wreck of 5th-7th century found in the sea off Pantano Longarini in southeast Sicily. The vessel would have been about 45 meters long and 9 meters wide; the structural details of the boat have contributed to the study of Byzantine ship-building.
DEFINITION: Small island in the central Mediterranean between Sicily and Tunisia. A fortified Neolithic village c 3000 BC has been excavated, with remains of huts, pottery, and obsidian tools. Of volcanic origin, it has a source of obsidian which was exploited in prehistory. There are tombs, known as sesi, similar to the nuraghi of Sardinia, comprising rough lava towers with sepulchral chambers in them. After a considerable interval of no habitation, the Phoenicians established a trading station there in the 7th century BC. Later controlled by the Carthaginians, it was occupied by the Romans in 217 BC. Under the Roman Empire it served as a place of banishment.
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: A temple dedicated to a group of gods or collective divinities; the term also refers to the group of gods. The first Pantheon was built by Agrippa in 27-25 BC, and rebuilt by Hadrian sometime between c 118-128 AD, and was one of the most remarkable buildings of Rome. The rotunda was roofed by a dome, fronted by a portico and entrance hall, of brick-faced concrete and of a height equal to internal diameter c 145 ft. The sophistication of the domed coffered ceiling was an important building in development of Roman architecture. The term has another meaning: a building serving as the burial place of or containing memorials to the famous dead of a nation
Santa Isabel Iztapán
DEFINITION: Two mammoth kill-sites in southeast Chiapas, Mexico, with human occupation dating to 9250 years ago. At one site, a skeleton was found scrapers, knives, and blades of flint and obsidian, as well as a stemmed projectile point of flint. The second mammoth site yielded a chert knife, a leaf-shaped point of flint, and a lanceolate point with a flat base. Similar kill sites were found at San Bartolo Atepehuacan, on the outskirts of Mexico City and at Tepexpan. The site is important as an indicator of the rapidity with which newly arrived (Asian) hunters dispersed southward. Stone tools of both the Big Game Hunting Tradition and the Old Cordilleran Tradition were found in the same levels, which is puzzling and infers a combination of hunting techniques were used.
DEFINITION: A site on the northern coast of Peru, in the Lambayeque region, with a complex of tombs of the Moche culture (Early Intermediate Period). There are royal or very lavish tombs, including that of the Lord of Sipán, a warrior-priest, with spectacular artifacts. Several more burial chambers containing the remains of Moche royalty have been excavated, all dating from c 300 AD. These finds have greatly aided the understanding of Moche society, religion, and culture.
Spanish Borderland
CATEGORY: geography
DEFINITION: The North American Spanish colonial territories.
Spanish Levant Art
CATEGORY: structure; artifact
DEFINITION: A series of rock shelters in the arid region of the Spanish Levant (Mediterranean Spain) with paintings in red and black from the Mesolithic. The scenes were quite unlike Palaeolithic art and the depictions offer information about the character of everyday life.
DEFINITION: Site of Late Pleistocene occupation in the Valley of Mexico, northeast of Mexico City, with skeletons of two mammoths killed with spears fitted with lancelike stone points and butchered on the spot. They have been given a possible date of 9000/8000 BC. In the same geologic layer a human skeleton was found - Tepexpan Man. There were no grave goods; it was buried face down with flexed legs and was identified as female. Fluorine analysis has confirmed the date of both skeleton types.
Tianko Panjang
DEFINITION: Cave site in central Sumatra with an obsidian microlith industry of c 9000 BC (e.g. unretouched flakes).
campanulate bowl
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A bowl or other kind of vessel, whether of pottery, metal, or some other material, shaped to the form of an inverted bell.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: In lithics, referring to the width of a stem or point that is getting larger or wider
flûte de Pan
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A type of suspension lug found on pottery of the Chassey, Cortaillod, and Lagozza cultures. Several vertical clay tubes, of width suitable to take a suspension cord, are set side-by-side on the wall of the vessel. The lug resembles a pan pipe or a section of corrugated cardboard.
frying pan
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A term used to describe any shallow circular vessel or bowl with a decorated base found in the Early Bronze Age of the Cyclades, especially the Cycladic Grotta-Pelos and Keros-Syros cultures. Made of clay, the handle was split into two knob-like projections and the stamped or incised decoration often included spirals. The vessel's purpose is unknown, perhaps ritual but not for cooking. It has been suggested that when filled with water they were used as mirrors. The resemblance to a frying pan is superficial and certainly misleading.
occupation span
CATEGORY: term; chronology
DEFINITION: The time period during which a site is occupied by humans.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A metal (or other material) container for cooking food in
pan bedding
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: An Egyptian construction technique, usually in mud-brick, consisting of curved courses. It is most often seen in temple enclosure walls from the Late Period (747-332 BC) onwards, which are usually built in sections and with a pronounced batter.
pan pipe
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: An instrument composed of several pipes in which air is made to vibrate by blowing across the top edge.
pan-grave culture
CATEGORY: culture
DEFINITION: Material culture of a group of semi-nomadic Nubian cattle herders who entered Egypt in the late Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC) and during the Second Intermediate Period (c 1633-1550 BC). They are well attested in Eastern Desert, the characteristic being shallow circular pit-graves with black-topped pottery, the 'pan graves' of Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia. Their material culture was similar to the C-Group. The people were mercenaries during this period of Egyptian history and during the New Kingdom, when they were called the Medjay.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A large shallow bowl for letting liquids stand.
panpipe lug
CATEGORY: ceramics
DEFINITION: A type of handle found on Neolithic pottery of the Chassey, Cortaillod, and Lagozza cultures in France, Switzerland, and northern Italy. It consisted of cylindrical vertical lugs placed side by side, thus resembling slightly the panpipe. The panpipe, a wind instrument, was widespread in Neolithic and later cultures, especially in Melanesia and pre-Columbian South America.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Curved, interlocking roof tile of S-shaped section usually made of clay or concrete.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: trepanning, trephining; trephination
DEFINITION: A surgical practice in which small sections of cranial bone are removed or a hole is made in a living human's head. It was used as an attempt to cure tumors, to relieve the brain of pressure after injury, cure headaches or epilepsy, or to cure insanity. It is clear that many subjects survived the operation, for in several cases the bone has started to regenerate, while in others there is evidence for successive trepanations. There are many prehistoric records of the practice, especially in Neolithic France and pre-Columbian Peru. The practice survives among some primitive peoples.
CATEGORY: structure
DEFINITION: The triangular space within a pediment, or the space between the top of a door and its surrounding arch. It is a vertical face which forms the rear of a pediment.
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: Skull rack on which, in the Aztec and some other Mesoamerican cultures, the skulls of sacrificial victims were displayed.
warming pan
CATEGORY: artifact
DEFINITION: A pan with a long handle which would be filled with coals and drawn over sheets to warm a bed.

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